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Arts, cultures, customs which have been prevailing in the society, for example: different festivals, Jatras etc., are called traditions.


Social Values:
Those things which help to maintain peace, love, understanding in the society are called social values. For example: To respect elders is a social value because they have given birth, education, knowledge, to the young ones so they should be respected.

Norms means ideas that are prevalent in the society. For example: To be honest, sincere, hard working are social norms.

All the cultural features and resources which are created, protected and promoted by our ancestor and handed to future generations are called heritages.

Types of Heritages:

1. Natural Heritage:

All those things created by nature for example: mountains, rivers, lakes are is called natural heritage.


2. Cultural Heritage:

All those things created by our ancestors and are modified, used and handed over to new generation is called Cultural Heritage. For example: festivals, temples etc.

Importance of Cultural Heritage:

  1. It is symbol of national unity and pride.
  2. It helps to fulfill social, cultural and economic needs.
  3. It promotes creative activities like art, song etc.
  4. It is the source of civilization.


Natural Heritages of Nepal:

Sagarmatha National Park:


  • Area:1148 sq. km. Lies in Himalayan region
  • It includes some of the highest peaks like Mount Everest, Mount Lhotse, Nuptse, etc.
  • The animals of Himalayan region are found here. For e.g. Snow leopard, Red panda, Blueship, Lophophorous, etc.
  • There are high altitude plants like pines, rhododendron, etc.
  • It lies between 2500 to 8848 meters.

Chitwan National Park:

  • Established in 2030 B.S.
  • Area: 932 sq.km.
  • It includes Terai, Bhabar and parts of Churia range.
  • The plants found here are elephant grass, Khayar, Simal, Sal, climbers, bushes, thatch grass, etc.
  • The animals found here are One horned rhino, asiatic rock python,etc.
  • It is famous for jungle safari.


Cultural Heritage:


  • Located at the southwest of Kathmandu in Rupandehi district.
  • Birth place of Lord Buddha.
  • There is famous Ashoka Pillar built in 245 BCE.
  • There is Mayadevi Temple.


Hanumandhoka Durbar

  • Pratap Malla established Hanuman image in 1672 AD. It has culture of Lichchhavi, Malla and Shah dynasty from 13th to 20th century.
  • Its buildings have best wood carvings.
  • Malla rulers laid foundation to the old structure.
  • There are monuments, temples and stupas.
  • In the western side lies Pashupati temple, Indreshwor, Krishna, Jagannath and Bishnu.
  • The King Pratap Malla built Degutalle temple.
  • There are many images of lichhavi rulers .
  • Mahendra Malla constructed mulchowk Taleju Temple.
  • Pratap Malla established Mahan Chowk, sundar Chowk etc.
  • During Prithivi Narayan Shah to Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah, it was used as royal palace.
  • There is kastamandap built in 12th century.
  • In Hanuman Dhoka many festivals like Indrajatra, Dashain etc are observed.
  • Taleju is opened once a year in Dashain.
  • It as a great importance of political and religious activities.
  • People visit to observe historical and cultural value.


Bhaktapur Durbar Square:

  • Bhaktapur means 'city of devotees'. In ancient times, it was called "Khriping Khopa". In Kirat time, it was called "Khopring". Amshuverma developed Bhaktapur as trade centre. During Malla period, it was the capital of Nepal and called "Tripura". The city was established in 12th century by Anand Dev. Shrine, monuments were built in 17th to 18th century.
  • Bhaktapur Durbar Square contains Nepalese architecture, art of wood, metal and terra cota.
  • In 1696 AD, Bhupatindra Malla built 99 chowks and 55 windowed palace.
  • In 1934 AD, it was damaged by earthquake and was rebuilt.
  • At present, there are 7 chowks namely Mul chowk, Bhairav Chowk, Itta chowk, Kumari Chowk, Bharati Chowk , etc.
  • Each Chowk has own importance for example Nasal Chowk for music, Mul Chowk for religious activities.
  • Yakshya Malla built Mul Chowk. The Taleju was also built by him.
  • Nyatpole was built in 1720 AD by Bhupatindra Malla. It is the tallest temple.
  • There is 1 storeyed Bhairav Kasinath temple built by Jagat Jyoti Malla.
  • Bhaktapur Durbar is famous for typical Newari culture.
  • The Malla palace is the model of the Nepalese architecture.
  • There are 2 gates to the square. They are white and golden gate.


  • This area needs preservation and renovation.
  • Department of Archaeology and Local Authority should take care of it.
  • Internal and international tourist visit it to observe culture, art and architecture.


Patan Durbar Square:


  • It is located in Mangalbazar of Lalitpur.
  • It is known as Lalitpur or Patan or Aeladen. There is artistic newari culture. The square is famous for palaces and temples.
  • It is said that the Kirants were ancient inhabitants of the place.
  • The Lichchhavi also developed the square as many monuments of that time is still found today.
  • The palace contains 3 beautiful Chowks and gardens.
  • The palace has 2 to 3 storeys building .
  • It is believed that monuments were built between 16th to 18th century.
  • There are 30 monuments.
  • In patan durbar square, there are many chowks like sundari, narayan etc.
  • Krishna mandir, Narayan mandir and Mani Ganesh mandir also lies there.
  • Siddhi Narshing Malla built a small pond where 80 royal priest and royal family would bath.
  • Krishna mandir was built by Siddhi Narshing Malla in Shikhar style.
  • In malla period, many temples and monuments were built.
  • It shows Patan was well flourished that time.


Pashupati Area:

  • It is located in the bank of Bagmati river.
  • One of the few most important Hindu pilgrimage.
  • Dedicated to lord Shiva.
  • Thousands of pilgrims visit this area from all over the world.
  • It is regarded as the most sacred temple of lord Shiva.


Boudhanath Stupa:

  • Largest stupa in Nepal.
  • Located 7 k.m. east of the capital.
  • One of the oldest stupas of Nepal constructed around 5th century.
  • There are 45 Buddhist monasteries in this area.

  • Art,culture,customs which have been prevailing in the society for example: different festivals, jatras etc is called tradition.
  • All the cultural features,resources created,protected and promoted by our ancestor and handed to future generations is called heritages.
  • Natural and cultural are two types of cultural heritage.

Very Short Questions

The ecosystem is different according to geographical belt. There is diversity in religious and cultural aspect in the life of the people of Nepal. The people pass their life by utilizing the natural resources of environment. The nature aspects are interrelated with the lifestyle. The culture and religious heritages are related with the activities of human life. There is some difference in religious and cultural heritage in every geographical belt. There are many temples of religious importance in our country. They have their own values characteristics and cultural importance.

The need and importance of cultural can be describes with the following topics: -

  • Field of research: They provide most valuable lesson that are fruitful to the present and future generations too. The people of the country and outside are interested in the research in religious and cultural aspects.
  • Creation of people: They are related to their life style and social aspects. They reveal tradition, developments, arts and lifestyles of the ancient time.
  • Internal part of the environment: The religious places, sites, rivers and ponds are the element of the natural environment. The temples, gumbas and masjids are the physical aspects
  • Job opportunities: The religious cultural activities are attractive visit to religious and cultural sites. They will create job opportunities to the local people.
  • Publicity and existence: The people of the other countries will be interested to know about Nepal. It gives importance to our religious and cultural Heritage.

  • Government should mobilize the local, nation and international organization in the conservation of the heritage by providing technical and financial supports to them.
  • The need and importance of religious and culture heritage should be incorporated in the educational programmes.
  • There is diversity in culture and religion, the people of one culture should respect the culture and religion.
  • The historical and most valuable cultural and artistic items should be preserved in the museum.
  • Different media like radio, television, newspaper etc. should be properly used to publicize the importance and ways of conservation of the heritages.

The Hilly Region of Nepal is rich in religious and cultural diversity. It hosts many ethnic communities like of Brahmins, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Tamang, Mangar,etc. Majority of people follow Hinduism and Buddhists rank second. Dashain, Tihar, JanaiPurnima, Maghesangkranti etc. are the main festivals celebrated by the people. Along with these festivals, people celebrate some local festivals too. Temples, Gumbas, Patipauwas, rivers etc. represent the religious and cultural heritage there. Religious heritage like Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Budhanilkantha, Dakshinkali, Dolakha Bhimsen, Manakamana etc. are among the famous religious shrines of this religion.

The total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge which constitute the shared bases of social action is termed as culture. As Nepal is rich in multi-cultural country, it has a great importance of various cultural aspects existing in our society.

  • They provide guidelines for daily life activities to lead a cultured and advance life.
  • They are the sources of recreating tourism probability in the country focusing on enough income generation.
  • They provide means and resources to support socio-cultural and economic activities that support the needs of life.
  • They may be the sources of knowledge and research for the followers of different culture within the same country or beyond.

Social norms, values and tradition are the creations of human society which promote goodwill and tolerance in the people. In fact, the society's progress and prosperity depends on how it is developed on the basis of its norms, values and tradition.

  • They provide guidelines to the people about how to carry out daily activities and maintain social prosperity.
  • They manage means and resources to support social, cultural and economic activities by fulfilling the needs of people's life.
  • They educate people about the importance of social relationships, behaviors, conducts and achievements respecting everyone's religion and culture different form other.
  • All the cultural heritages are the sources of history, literature, technology and other valuable aspects of human civilization. So, they help to promote goodwill and tolerance in the society.

The public properties like cultural heritages are found being misused in our society. People do not feel responsible to preserve, promote and utilize them in a scientific way. There are both, good and bad aspects of using them commercially. Some of them are listed below:

  • By managing the procedure for preserving and promoting then, it is better to utilize them commercially.
  • The monuments and properties of the heritages cannot be deteriorated and lost, it is good to generate income from using them publicly, so people can be employed and help their livelihood.
  • If their status worsens and originality is lost, they should be kept away from the commercial using because our identity also is lost along with their deterioration.
  • They should not be used for personal cause; they should benefit the society and common people.

a. Have consensus among the political parties. b. Encourage people's participation in their renovation. c. Allocate sufficient budget . d. Check corruption and irregularities in the name of reconstruction and renovation. e. Earn the faith of donor agencies by accelerating the renovation work effectively.

  • What is the area of Himalayan Region?

    2248 sq. km
    2148 sq. km
    1248 sq. km
    1148 sq. km
  • What is the area of Chitwan National Park?

    932 sq.km
    911 sq.km
    832 sq.km
    345 sq.km
  • When was Chitwan National Park established?

    2040 B.S.
    2020 B.S.
    2030 B.S.
    2035 B.S.
  • When did Bhupatindra Malla build 99 chowks and 55 windowed palace?

    1797 A.D.
    1696 A.D.
    1669 A.D.
    1595 A.D.
  • Nyatpole was built in

    1820 A.D.
    1770 A.D.
    1690 A.D.
    1720 AD
  • How many types of heritages are there?

  • What should be done to preserve our cultral heritage?

    Strict law should be made n implement properly.
    All of the given
    The local people should know the importance about the cultural heritage.
    They should be renovate and repaired often.
  • Which is the biggest National park of Nepal?

    Shivapuri National Park
    Bardiya National Park
    Chitwan National Park
    She-Phoksundo National Park
  • Which is the deepest valley in the world?

    Arun Valley
    Tamor Valley
    Pokhara Valley
    Kathmandu Valley
  • Gautam Buddha was born in which district of Nepal?

  • Which one is the highest National Park of Nepal?

    Khaptad National Park
    Sagarmatha National Park
    Bardiya National Park
    She-Phoksundo National Park
  • Bengal tiger is found in which National Park of Nepal?

  • Which historical site has excellent architecture design?

    Bauddhanath Stupa
    Bhaktapur Durbar Square
    Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
    Patan Durbar Square
  • Which historical site has excellent Medieval architecture design?

    Patan Durbar square
    Bhaktapur Durbar Square
    Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
    Bauddhanath Stupa
  • Where is Krishna temple with 21 golden pinnacles?

    Patan Durbar square
    Bauddhanath Stupa
    Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
    Bhaktapur Durbar Square
  • Where is 55 windows palace and Nyatapola temple?

    Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
    Bhaktapur Durbar Square
    Bauddhanath Stupa
    Patan Durbar Square
  • Which historical place was designed during Lichhachhavi period?

    Changunarayan Temple
    Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
    Bauddhanath Stupa
    Patan Durbar Square
  • When did UNESCO enlisted Lumbini as the World Heritage Site?

    1990 AD
    1992 AD
    1997 AD
    1995 AD
  • When was The Ashoka Pillar built?

    242 BC
    245 BC
    247 BC
    250 BC
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