Direction virtually denotes management in action. Direction means the issuance of orders and leading and motivating subordinates. It clearly envisages that directing is a part of managerial function and process in which senior issues orders, gives instructions, provides leadership, guides and supervises subordinates performance, motivates them to develop confidence and zeal. He also communicates with the subordinates effectively. Without direction, nothing can be accomplished. Direction can be also defined in terms of instruction, supervision, motivation, leadership and communication.
According to Ernest Dale,"Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability." It includes making assignments, corresponding procedures, seeing that mistakes are corrected, providing on the job instruction and of course, issuing orders.
Besides, these elements relating to direction may be as follows:
We know that direction is a vital function of management, but it is also a complex one. A manager can learn and get perfection in it only having long experiences. Direction deals with people whose nature and behavior is quite complex and unpredictable. However, some important principles or requirements of direction can be prescribed for effective implementation and they are discussed here under:
The first principle of direction is to maintain harmony and establish consistency in the objectives of individuals and enterprise. Employees may be interested in achieving their own goals and objectives such as the satisfaction of their physiological and psychological needs and on the other hand, an enterprise may have their own corporate objective which they may wish to be accomplished with the help of employees. So a manager can very tactfully manage the problem and situation by establishing a complete harmony between the individual and corporate objectives. If employees are asked to work hard so that enterprise’s profit may increases, then the employees probably will not. Thus, through proper and tactful direction, a manager can easily integrate individual and organizational goals or objectives.
Unity of command is the principle of organizing, however, it is equally applicable in the case of direction. According to this principle, each and every employee should receive order or instruction only from a definite superior i.e., one manager. If orders are given by more than two superiors or works are assigned by many seniors, it will surely create confusion, conflict, and disorder in the organization. Therefore, only one superior should command the subordinates.
As a leader, a manager is required to supervise the work and performance of subordinates. Within the organization, the superiors are required to make direct contact with the juniors, subordinates, and staff members to whom they have assigned the jobs and prescribed instructions. In this regard, personal touch and contact, face to face communication and individual hearing will encourage the subordinates and thus successful direction would be achieved. This principle may help to boost the working staff.
Today, communication has become necessary for organizational success. The effective communication system should be adopted if corporate success is to be achieved. The principle of direction also demands and tells that two-way communication must be followed i.e. downward and upward communication. Downward communication carries the orders, instruction, guiding etc. given by the senior to the subordinates, and on the other hand, upward communication is related to subordinates feeling, thought, and performance in the organization. If senior knows and understands the workers feeling, then it will be easier to make the direction effective.
Unless the subordinates understand the assigned job and instruction , it will be meaningless to give emphasis upon direction. So, a direction is guided by the principle i.e. what job is assigned to the subordinates understand it easily, exactly and accept it wholly.
Information is very important. Lack of information, partial information and problems , disseminating information may create an unfavorable situation. For the effective and efficient direction, the direct and complete flow of information is necessary. Information is necessary for communication, communication is necessary for direction and effective direction helps the organization to achieve the corporate goals.
The subordinates, workers, staff members and other followers feel very protected, guided, saved and see the future with some short of confidence and assurance if they are lead well by their senior. So, a manager must possess a quality of leadership if he wants his subordinates to perform work well. Under the process of leadership, he should assign the job with instruction and guide them and provide his personal advice too. Besides, he should pay personal attention to individual workers and try to understand their problems if any they have. Doing these, a manager can win the confidence.
Unless the workers are motivated their work may not be accomplished well. Motivation creates a willingness to work. This motivation can be materialized by the manager. The manager can motivate the employees in the work. He can inspire in such a way that the employees may contribute to the accomplishment of the organization’s goal.
Today, within the business organization, much other informal organization are being created by the employees. A group of people uses to create separate associations of their own interests. The associations may be related to any type and kind ranging from ethnic to professional. Hence, the manager should , first of all, accept the association and then try to use that association strategically for the betterment of organization and association both.
Every person has some potentials and capability with which he performs the job. Here, this potentiality and capability should be utilized properly. A manager with effective motivation and leadership should adopt such direction techniques so that the capability of individuals should be utilized in its true sense.
Sharma, P., Shrestha, A., Pant, H., Gautam, I., Thapa, R. B., & Upadhyay, P. (2011). Buddha Publication.
Poudyal, Santosh Raj et.al., Business Studies-XII, Asmita Book Publication, Kathmandu
Bhandari, Kedar Prasad, Business Studies-XII, Bundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu
Direction is related to the following elements:
Direction is an important managerial function which is required to initiate the actual action. Direction is the process of activating human resources to achieve the organizational objectives. It includes assigning jobs, issuing orders, supervising the subordinates and rectifying the errors in time. Direction brings the whole organizational plans, policies and strategies into action. He also communicates with the subordinates effectively. Without direction, nothing can be accomplished. Direction can be also defined in terms of instruction, supervision, motivation, leadership and communication.
According to Ernest Dale,"Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability."
According to Theo Haimann, "Directing consists of the process and techniques utilized in issuing instructions and making certain that operation is carried out as originally planned."
In conclusion, directing is a function that includes all those activities , which are designed to encourage a subordinate to work effectively and efficiently. It includes making assignments, corresponding procedures, seeing that mistakes are corrected, providing on the job instruction and of course, issuing orders.
Any six principles of direction are as follows:
Direction conveys the working procedures to the subordinates about what to do, how to do, when to do etc. This principle ensures that the subordinates understand the order of the manager in the same sense in which they are conveyed. Partial convey the meaning may not ensure the understanding.
For the effective and efficient direction, the direct and complete flow of information is necessary. Information is necessary for communication, communication is necessary for direction and effective direction helps the organization to achieve the corporate goals. Thus, the principle of direction is the flow of information.
A manager must possess a quality of leadership if he wants his subordinates to perform work well. So, effective leadership is essential for effective direction. It helps to the superior to win over the confidence of subordinates. He should assign the job with instruction and guide them and provide his personal advice too.
Unless the workers are motivated in their work may not be accomplished well. Motivation creates a willingness to work. The manager should know how to motivate and inspire the employees. It provides higher job satisfaction. To direct properly and motivate the employees the manager should know the attitudes of the employees.
In every organization, employees form informal organization or groups on basis of their interests, habits, preferences, religion, culture, etc. The information flows very quickly through informal channels because information flows in the form of a grape vine. The manager must recognize and utilize the informal organization constructively.
Every person has some potentials and capability with which he performs the job. Management should adopt such direction technique which inspires the employees to contribute their maximum capabilities for the achievement of goals. The managers should motivate the subordinates to peak the performance.