Management is considered as a science by some management experts and some others take management as an art. This controversy has existed for a long time and still not solved.
According to J. Paul Getty, “Management cannot be systematized or practiced according to a formula. It is an art creative art.”
However, many people disagree with him. So the definition of management whether it is a science or an art or a profession depends on the authors.
There are few fundamentals for management to become a science, an art, and a profession.
Management can be taken as science as it is a systemized branch of knowledge or principle which can be proved and is found out by continuous observation and verified experimentations. Management is not pure science but it is a social science as it deals with human beings and their behavior.
Management uses various quantitative models and proven techniques to make decisions while solving a problem. Hence, the thumb of rule is not taken as management but a scientific approach to an issue is taken. Hence, management can be taken as science. Some of the features of management as science are:
Management is an art of getting the work done through others. Management is the skill and art of a manager on how they are able to manage the people and resources to complete the task and attain the goals. So, management can be taken as a creative art as it uses knowledge, skills, and creativity to get the desired results. Features of management as art are:
Management in today’s world can be taken as a separate profession or occupation. In the past, there was no separation of ownership and management. Hence, owners themselves manage the people.
But now in the expanding world of corporate business, there are huge companies and they require a lot of manpower and machinery. So professional managers are must for the companies. Management is taught and trained in universities as other disciplines and has a huge scope. Hence, management can be taken as a profession. Some of the features of management as a profession are:
Hence, we can conclude that management is multidisciplinary in nature.
(Neupane Surendra; Parajuli, Ram Prasad; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Chhetri, Tuk Bahadur; Dulal, Gopal Prasad: pg-17-19)
An organization is composed up of employees having various skills and performing different tasks to achieve the predetermined organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. So while managing the whole organization there exist a network of responsibility and accountability relationship between subordinate and their immediate supervisor. The immediate supervisor again has to be accountable to the supreme manager. And in this way, there are people working together in one organization but with a different designation from top to lower level.
So we can understand that the level of management can be divided on the basis of the organizational hierarchy and nature, history any and size of the organization. The three levels of management can be categorized as:
The topmost level of management consists of the Chief Executive Officer, President, General Manager, Managing Director, Board of Director and shareholders. They are the most powerful people in the organization as they carry more authority and they make the policies and strategies of the organization. Hence, they are also known as strategic managers. Some of the major functions of Top level management are:
The middle-level management consists of various managers such as department heads, divisional heads, section heads, branch managers, strategic business unit head, etc. This level acts as the bridge between the top level management and lower level management. This level is also known as the tactical level of management. Hence, it follows the plans and policies and strategies set by the top level management. They direct the lower level management and they formulate the department and section goals to achieve the overall goals of the organization. Some major functions of Middle-level management are:
The lower level management consists of supervisors, team leaders, superintendent, and foreman. They are the operating level managers as they deal with the workers to carry out the daily activities of the organization. They follow the plans and policies by middle-level management. They help in the smooth running of the organization. Some of the functions of lower level management are:
(Sharma, Surendra Raj; Jha, Surendra Kumar: pg-22-27)
Neupane Surendra; Parajuli, Ram prasad; Jha , Deepak Kumar; Chhetri, Tuk Bahadur; Dulal, Gopal Prasad;. "Business Studies class: XII." Kathmandu: Nawakala Publications, 2011. 28-40.
Sharma, Surendra Raj; Jha, Surendra Kumar;. "Business Studies Grade XII." Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, 2011 A.D. 31-40.
Shrestha, Kul Narsingh. "Business Organization and Management ." Kathmandu: Nabin Prakashan, 2065 B.S. 30-46.
Management can be taken as science as it is a systemized branch of knowledge or principle which can be proved and is found out by continuous observation and verified experimentations. Management is not pure science but it is a social science as it deals with Human beings and their behavior. Features of Management as science are:
Management is an art of getting the work done through others. Management is the skill and art of a manager on how they are able to manage the people and resources to complete the task and attain the goals. Features of Management as an Art are:
Management in today’s world can be taken as a separate profession or occupation. In the past, there was no separation of ownership and Management. Management is taught and trained in universities as other disciplines and has a huge scope Hence Management can be taken as a profession. Features of Management as a Profession are:
The hierarchical arrangement of different managers in an organization is said to be the level of management. It aids to show the authority and responsibility associated with each level and also provides a way of communication. It is one of the essential element to make a system in organizational performance. On the basis of nature, system, and size of the organization, the management can be classified into the following three types: