Management as science, art and profession and Level of Management



Management is considered as a science by some management experts and some take management as an art. This controversy has existed for a long time and still not solved.

According to J. Paul Getty, “Management cannot be systematized or practiced according to a formula. It is an art a creative art.” However, many people disagree with him. So the definition of management whether it is a science or an art or a profession depends on authors to authors.

There are few fundamentals for management to become a science, an art, and a profession.

Management as science


Management can be taken as science as it is a systemized branch of knowledge or principle which can be proved and is found out by continuous observation and verified experimentations. Management is not pure science but it is a social science as it deals with human beings and their behavior.

Management uses various quantitative models and proven techniques to make decisions while solving a problem. Hence, thumb of rule is not taken as Management but scientific approach to an issue is taken. Hence, Management can be taken as science. Features of Management as science are:

  • The systematic body of knowledge: Management has various theories, concepts, principles, models and techniques which help in systematic solution to an issue. Thus, Management is a systemized body of knowledge.

  • Universally applicable: The concepts and theories of Management are true throughout the world. It is applicable and useful in every organization in any place. It may, however, vary in some exceptional situations

  • Cause and effect relationship: Management also follows the principle of cause and effect relationship. When a certain Management action is taken then it affects the organization in a certain manner. Hence, we can find management is based on cause and effect relationship.

  • Observation and Experiment: The laws of Management are derived from many observations and different experiments carried out in various organizations. So the theories of Management are based on the findings and proofs of observation and experimentations.

  • Predictability: Though all the results are not predictable, many predictions of future events can be forecasted because of the proven theories of Management.

Management as art

Management is an art of getting the work done through others. Management is the skill and art of a manager on how they are able to manage the people and resources to complete the task and attain the goals. So Management can be taken as a creative art as ituses knowledge, skills, and creativity to get the desired results. Features of Management as an Art are:

  • Practical Knowledge: In a workplace, a manager has to make lots of decisions. Most of these decisions should be taken immediately when the problem arises. So Experience of a manager helps them to make a practical decision. Thus, practical knowledge is an art which helps a manager to make a correct decision.

  • Creativity: In an organization, a manager has to apply new ways and techniques to manage various people. Only through innovative concepts and creative thinking, a manager can be successful to manage his employees well.

  • Personal Qualities: If a Manager is highly influential then he can motivate the employees to work harder for the attainment of goals. This suggests that personal qualities such as personality, physic, linguistic capabilities etc. are necessary for a manager.

  • Betterment through Practice: Practice is essential as it gives experience and makes a person more capable. So with regular practice, a manager is able to improve the grade of the action.

  • Result-oriented: Management is an art which focuses on the attainment of the organizational goal in the most effective and efficient manner.

Management as profession


Management in today’s world can be taken as a separate profession or occupation. In the past, there was no separation of ownership and Management. Hence, owners would themselves manage the people.

But now in the expanding world of corporate business, there are huge companies and they require a lot of manpower and machinery. So professional Managers are a must for the companies. Management is taught and trained in universities as other disciplines and has a huge scope hence Management can be taken as a profession. Features of Management as a Profession are:

  • Specialized knowledge: A profession should have a peculiar specialization in a particular field. One must possess a high level of knowledge and skills to practice a profession. Management is a separate discipline having a specialized and organized body of knowledge.

  • Formal education and training: To be a certain professional there must be a process of formal training of education. One cannot practice the profession without any guidance or training. Similarly, management is taught and trained in various universities throughout the world. One need to hold a certain degree and attain certain knowledge and thus may apply for management post in an organization. However, there is no compulsion for a degree to get a job as a manager by the law.

  • Social Responsibility: A profession is always linked with society. A man cannot perform his task running away from the society. So there are some social responsibilities that a professional must follow. One should charge money for the services they provide but a manager must also take care of all the social needs of the community and should contribute by creating utility for social welfare.

  • Professional Association: Any profession has a group or association who decide the rules and regulation for the profession they are engaged. The members of an association must follow the rules and regulation set by the association. This association safeguards their rights and promotes their common interests.

  • Code of conduct: Any profession must be ethical to the society. They must follow the rules and regulations and should be morally correct. They should not violate other’s rights. So there must be a standard set of values such as honesty, integrity, and ethics.

So we are clear that Management meets all the requirements to be a science, an art, and a profession. Hence, we can conclude that Management is multidisciplinary in Nature.

(Neupane Surendra; Parajuli, Ram prasad; Jha , Deepak Kumar; Chhetri, Tuk Bahadur; Dulal, Gopal Prasad: pg-17-19)

Level of management

An organization is formed of employees having various skills and performing different tasks to achieve the organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. So while managing the whole organization there exist a network of responsibility and accountability relationship between subordinate and their immediate supervisor. The immediate supervisor again has to be accountable to the supreme manager. And in this way, there are people working together in one organization but with a different designation from top to lower level.


So we can understand that the level of Management can be divided on the basis of the organizational hierarchy and nature, history any and size of the organization. The three level of Management are:

Top Level Management

The top most level of management consists of the Chief executive officer, President, General Manager, Managing director, Board of Director and shareholders. They are the most powerful people in the organization as they carry more authority and they make the policies and strategies of the organization.Hence, they are also known as the strategic managers. Some of the Major functions of Top level management are:

  1. They are the starters and promoters of the organization.
  2. Formulation of long-term plans , policies and strategies and set objectives of the organization
  3. Organizes various departments and divisions in the organizational structure to implement the plans and policies.
  4. Co-ordinates the human resources with the other factors of production for efficiency.
  5. Reviews the work of all the departments and takes necessary steps to achieve higher efficiency.
  6. Lead the organization and directs the overall activities to achieve the desired output.
  7. Links and communicates the organization with the external environment.
  8. Provides guidelines to the middle level management.

Middle-level Management

The middle-level management consists of various managers such as department heads, divisional heads, section heads, branch managers, strategic business unit head etc. This level acts as the bridge between the top level management and lower level management. This level is also known as tactical level of management. Hence, it follows the plans and policies and strategies set by the top level management. They direct the lower level management and they formulate the department and section goals to achieve the overall goals of the organization. Some major functions of Middle-level management are:

  1. Establishes a relationship between the lower level and top level management.
  2. Implementation of plans, policies, and strategies designed by the top level management.
  3. They design the organizational structure of their related departments, sections, branches and strategic business units.
  4. They recruit and train the employees to get into various departments.
  5. They provide the guidelines to the lower level managers.
  6. They transfer the problems and feedbacks to the top level management.
  7. They motivate, supervise and lead the operating level managers to achieve higher productivity.
  8. They co-ordinate with other departments of the organization.

Lower Level Management

The lower level management consists of supervisors, team leaders, superintendent, and foreman. They are the operating level managers as they deal with the workers to carry out the daily activities of the organization. They follow the plans and policies by the middle level management. They help in smooth running of the organization. Some of the functions of lower level management are:

  1. Leads and directs the workers to perform the daily activities of the organization
  2. Supervises and controls the work of the workers to get higher efficiency.
  3. Arranges the human resources and other resources to perform the job.
  4. Assign tasks and work to the workers and guide them by providing goals.
  5. Establishes a relationship between the middle level management and the workers.
  6. Transports the suggestions and feedbacks to the middle level management.
  7. Co-ordinates the labor and maintains discipline among the workers.

(Sharma , Surendra Raj; Jha, Surendra Kumar : pg-22-27)


Neupane Surendra; Parajuli, Ram prasad; Jha , Deepak Kumar; Chhetri, Tuk Bahadur; Dulal, Gopal Prasad;. "Business Studies class: XII." Kathmandu: Nawakala Publications, 2011. 28-40.

Sharma, Surendra Raj; Jha, Surendra Kumar;. "Business Studies Grade XII." Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, 2011 A.D. 31-40.

Shrestha, Kul Narsingh. "Business Organization and Management ." Kathmandu: Nabin Prakashan, 2065 B.S. 30-46.

  1. Management is a scince as it is a systemized branch of knowledge or principle which can be proved and is found out by continuous observation and verified experimentations.
  2. Management is an art as it is the skill and art of a manager on how they are able to manage the people and resources to complete the task and attain the goals.
  3. Management is a profession as it has a huge scope in every field in the world today.
  4. Three level of Management are top level, middle level and lower level management.

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