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Note on Solar System

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The giant family of the sun including planets, asteroids , comets etc is called the solar system.The diameter of the solar system is 10.5 light hour.


It is a medium sized star whose surface temperature is about 6000 degree Celsius. Sun revolve around the galactic center once in 2.5 x 108 years. Sun consist of 3 layers which are photosphere, chromosphere, and corona.

Importance of sun in solar system:

  1. It is the center of solar system.
  2. All the planets revolve around the sun in their own orbit.
  3. It provides light to all the planet to shine as they have no light of their own.
  4. It provides heat and light energy for the lives of the planets if the life exists there.



In solar system, there are eight planets and out of them first four planets which are present inside asteroid belt are called inner planets. They are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. But the remaining four planets are out of the asteroid belt and are called an outer planet. They are Jupiter , Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Some important facts about planet:
  1. Nearest planet to sun = Mercury
  2. Farthest planet to the sun = Neptune
  3. Fastest rotating planet = Mercury
  4. Morning and evening star = Venus
  5. Hottest planet = Venus
  6. Green planet or living planet = Earth
  7. Red planet = Mars
  8. Largest planet = Jupiter
  9. Planet having ring = Saturn
  10. Planet that can float in water = Saturn


  • Natural satellite:

    They are that member of the solar system which revolve around the planets in their elliptical orbits . There are about 163 natural satellites. All the planets do not have satellites. Mercury and Venus have no satellite.Satellite are nonluminous bodies but they appear bright by reflecting the sunlight.The number of satellite are different and are given below:

    1. Mercury = 0
    2. Venus = 0
    3. Earth = 1
    4. Mars = 2 (Phobos and Deimos)
    5. Jupiter = 63 (Europa,Callisto)
    6. Saturn = 60 (Titan)
    7. Uranus = 27 (Miranda, Ariel)
    8. Neptune = 13(Nereid)

  • Artificial satellite:

    An artificial satellite is made on the earth which moves continuously around the earth. The orbit of the artificial satellite is elliptical and characterized by the parameters, apogee, perigee, and inclination. Satellites are launched for different purposes.


The piece of rocks revolving around the sun between variable size and about 200 asteroids are present in the solar system. The diameter of asteroids varies from 100m to 700 km.The largest asteroid is Ceres which takes 4.6 years to revolve around the sun.


A comet is a frozen chunk of gas,dust and ice which when approaches the sun it begins to resemble a foggy star with the long shiny tail. They are the block of icy rock materials and surrounded by the large mass of substance like water, ammonia, methane,etc .They make round the sun in highly elongated oval orbit , so they spend most of their time away from the sun.

Meteors and meteorites:

Small pieces of rocks or metals which enter the earth's atmosphere from outer space with very high speed are called Meteors. They are also called the shooting star. If meteors are too big, then it will not burn completely and reach on earth. Some objects which land on the earth from the outer space are called the meteorite.

  • The giant family of sun including planets, asteroids , comets etc is called solar system.
  • In solar system there are eight planets and out of them first four planet which are present inside asteroid belt are called inner planets.
  • The piece of rocks revolving round the sun between variable size are asteroids.
  • A comet is a frozen chunk of gas,dust and ice which when approaches the sun it begins to resemble a foggy star with long shiny tail.

Very Short Questions

A group of heavenly bodies where sun is the center and all the other heavenly bodies are under the influence of its gravitational force is called the solar system. The solar system contains of the sun the nine planets, their satellites, a large number of asteroids, comets and meteors.

The sun mainly contains of hydrogen gas. The hydrogen atom continuously combines to form helium atoms. Four hydrogen atoms combine to form a helium atom by the process of nuclear fusion. During this nuclear fusion a huge amount of energy is released. ­­1H1+1H11H2­ ­­1H2+1H11H3­ ­­1H3+1H11H4­+ energy

Fragments of heavenly bodies that have irregular shape and revolve around the sun are called asteroids. These asteroids that are also known as minor planets revolve around the sun with their revolving orbit present between the revolving orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

Comet that appears every time after a fixed period of time as it takes a definite time to revolve around the sun is called periodic comet. Halley's Comet is a periodic comet that appears after every 76 years. It last appeared in 1986 and will again appear in 2062 AD. Hyakutake is another periodic comet.

One example of a comet is the Hyakutake Comet. The comet revolves around the sun like planets but the orbit is much larger than those of planet. Because of this reason each comet is seen at a gap of long period.

Comet is a small object with a head and a tail. Head is the main body made up of hard particles of methane, water and ammonia embedded in ice. The tail consists of dust or gas. As the comet approaches the sun, the crystal vaporizes and gas glows in the form of a long tail. When the comet moves away from the sun, the tail shortens due to less heat. This is why the tail of the comet increases or decreases when it goes round the sun.

Meteors are the pieces of heavenly bodies that burn to ashes due to friction on entering the earth's atmosphere. When meteor burns, a part of it reaches the earth's surface before burning completely to ashes. The piece that reaches the earth's surface is called meteorite.

The 5 importance of the sun are as follows:

  1. The sun emits continuous heat and light due to thermo-nuclear reactions making life possible on the earth.
  2. It is the cause for brightness seen in all the planets and satellites. The planets and satellites appear bright as they reflect the sun's light.
  3. The sun controls the outer layer temperature and becomes the central cause for different geographical processes on the earth.
  4. It is the major source of energy. Sun light can be converted into electrical energy by solar cells.
  5. All planets and natural satellites remain and revolve in the fixed orbits because of the sun.

When meteor falls, it comes in contact with the earth's atmosphere. The friction that results causes the meteor to burn completely to ashes leaving nothing to reach the earth's surface. Comet is a heavenly body that shines brightly when it comes near the sun. Comet is seen with a head and a bright tail because of sun's light. As it does not have its own light, it's not a star.

Three reasons of launching artificial satellite into the space are as follows:

  1. It is used for communication like radio, TV, telephone, e-mail, etc. For this purpose geo-stationary satellite is used.
  2. Satellite is used for forecasting the weather of a specific place or a country. This weather forecast is important for domestic and international flights of a country.
  3. Satellite can be used to study about other planets and natural satellite for this purpose, the artificial satellite sends photographs to the earth's control center.

  • The time interval between two successive occurrences of a specific type of alignment of a planet (or the moon) with the sun and the earth is referred to as ______.

    a synodic period.

    a sidereal period

    a conjunction

    an opposition

  • The giant family of sun including planets, asteroids , comets etc is called ______.


    solar system



  • The biggest asteroid is ______.





  • The largest circular storm in our solar system is on the surface of ______.





  • One Jupiter day is equal to ______.

    52 hrs 10 min

    9 hrs 50 min

    3 hrs 20 min

    30 hrs 40 min

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Forum Time Replies Report
prabin shrestha

why venus is taken as the twin planet of earth?

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Smallest planet

Smallest planet,brightest planet

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Evedience of black hole

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Dikshyant Adhikari

The comet is not a star ,why ?

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