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Note on Soap and Detergent

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Soap is the sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water.

Saponification:

The process by which soap is prepared by the reaction of animal or plant fat with sodium hydroxide solution is saponification.

Process of formation of soap

Soap is prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium hydroxide . The fats or oils react with alkali or sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol.Glycerol is the trihydric alcohol.

Fat or Oil + Sodium hydroxide→ Soap + Glycerol

Detergents:

Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or long chain alkyl benzene sulphate which has more cleansing property in water.

Advantages of detergents over soap:

  1. They can be used even in hard water.
  2. They give stronger cleansing property than soap.
  3. They are more soluble in water than soap.

Advantages of soap over detergents:

  1. Soap is biodegradable.
  2. They do not pollute water bodies like ponds, lakes, etc.

Differences between soap and detergent

Soap Detergent
They are sodium salts of higher fatty acids. They are sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid.
They have relatively weaker cleansing action They have relatively strong cleansing action
It is biodegradable It is non biodegradable
It is not suitable for washing in hard water.For example: Sodium sterate It is suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium lauryl sulphate

  • Soap is the sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water.
  • Soap is prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium hydroxide . The fats or oils react with alkali or sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol.Glycerol is the trihydric alcohol.
  • Fat or Oil + Sodium hydroxide → Soap + Glycerol
  • It is not suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium sterate.
  • Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or long chain alkyl benzene sulphate which has more cleansing property in water.
  • Detergents are suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium lauryl sulphate
.

Very Short Questions

Soap is the sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids e.g. sodium stearate. When some fats or oil is heated with sodium solution, it splits into the sodium salt of the higher fatty acid (i.e. soap) and glycerol. Fat or oil + NaOH (or KOH) → Soap + Glycerol

The industrial chemical formed by fatty acid and caustic soda is soap.

Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain of benzene sulphonic acid or alkyl benzene sulphonate. Sodium lauryl sulphate is the example of detergents.

Detergent is better than soap to wash clothes because it has strong cleansing action than soap since it is more soluble in water than soap and does not form scum with hard water.

Soap Detergents
  1. Soaps are prepared from animal fats or vegetable oil.
  2. Soaps are biodegradable.
  1. Detergents are prepared from hydrocarbon extracted from petroleum.
  2. Detergents are mostly non- biodegradable.

0%
  • The condensed formula of ethene is ______.

    CH3-CH2-CH = CH2


    HC = CH


    CH3 CH = CH2


    CH2 = CH2


  • ______ is the sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water.

    detergents
    both soap and detergents
    soap
    none of above
  • Detergents is defined as ______.

    sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water
    sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or long chain alkyl benzene sulphate which has more cleansing property in water
    sodium salt of fatty acid which has more cleansing property in water
    substance prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium chloride
  • Which one is biodegradable ?

    detergents
    both soap and detergents
    none of above
    soap
  • You scored /4


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DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

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Nirveek

Please provide chemical formulas for the materials.


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bishow khatri

detergent is more beneficial then soap then why soap is used by most people ?


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anish

why is detergent called soapless soap


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