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Herbal Plants

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Herbal plants

Nepal is a country blessed with an abundance of medicinal plants. These herbal plants can be used for making medicines, cosmetic products, perfumes, soaps etc. It is thus important that these medicinal plants are identified, preserved, conserved and produced commercially. Herbal plants are used in any form of the medicinal systems such as Ayurveda or any form of traditional knowledge to cure any kind of illness. Plants with a specific smell in any of its parts are known as aromatic plants. Most of the aromatic plants are herbal plants but all herbal plants are not aromatic. Aromatic plants are used to make essential oils.

Classification of Herbal plants

Herbal plants
Fig: Herbal plants

Of the 250,000 species of plants available on earth, it is believed that more than 80,000 species have some kind of medical benefits. Moreover, more than 500 species have specific therapeutic values. In our country, more than 7,000 species of plants are found among which around 700 have medical benefits. Moreover, more than 238 species are chemically tested.

The major classification of herbal plants available in Nepal is given below:

Based on parts used

  • Whole plant: Phyllanthus neruri
  • Root: Panchaule, Jatamasi, Bojho, wild garlic
  • Stem: Sweet flag
  • Bark: Neem, Kafal, Walnut, Daalchini, Chutro, Palash
  • Leaf: Aleo vera, Tejpat, Titepati, Asura, Loth salla
  • Fruit and seed: Peepal, Rudraksh, Sagundh kokila, Harro, Barro, Lapsi, Katus, Amala, Rittha
  • Flower: Rhododendron, Aank, Nageswor

Based on habit

  • Grasses: Dubo (Cynodondactylon)
  • Herbs: Marchhajhar (Vernonia cineria)
  • Shrubs: Solanum species
  • Climbers: Aspargus racemosus

Based on therapeutic value

  • Antimalarial: Artemisia Annua
  • Anti-Cancer: Taxas Baccata
  • Antidiabetic: Catharanthus roseus
  • Antiviral: Acacia catechu
  • Antifungal: Allium Satiuum

Besides these, herbal plants are also classified on the basis of habitat, Ayurvedic formulation etc.

Collection of Local Herbal Plants

Local herbal plant
Fig: Local herbal plants

Every herbal plants have their own distinct features and life cycle. Some herbal plants grow in rainy season, some in winter, while some are found throughout the year. Hence, the collection time of all herbal plants is not the same.

One also should have information regarding if the part to be collected is completely developed or not.

A table that describes the parts of herbal plants to be collected with their collection month/time of the year is given below:


Name of herbal plant

Parts to be collected

Collection month/time


Jatamasi, Padamchal,Bojho, Sarpagandha

Roots and Shoot

Asoj- Chaitra


Neem, Dalchini

Leaves and Bark

Falgun- Baisakh


Titepati, Tejpat, Dhaturo


Before Blossoming of flowers



Flower, Bark

Before Blossoming of flowers




After ripening of fruits

Storage of Herbal Plants & Their Preservation

Herbal preservation
Fig: Herbal preservation

After the collection of the herbal plants, the next step is to store and preserve them so that they can be further processed and used. A little more effort might help us preserve more herbal plants throughout the year. Herbal plants are easily damaged by:

  • Air
  • Heat
  • Light
  • Moisture
  • Insects

In the storage of medicinal plants, the following elements are to be considered:

  • Container, jar or box where herbal plants are kept should be dry, clean and air tight.
  • Never crumble the medicinal plant until you use.
  • The herbal plant should be kept in sunlight or shade for drying.
  • Storage room should be dark and cool.
  • Label the container with the name of the plant along with the date of collection.
  • Timely monitoring of the stored herbal plants should be carried out.

Processing of Herbal Plants

Herbal plants found on the local level can be primarily processed and used as a remedy for various diseases and infection. The steps involved in the processing of majority of herbal plants are similar. They all go through a common series of steps which later are differentiated based on utility and specification.

The steps involved in the processing of herbal plants are listed below:

  • Drying
  • Proper storage
  • Proper cleaning
  • Collection of required parts of medicinal plant
  • Removal of unwanted objects
  • Cooking/Crushing/Evaporation/Extraction of oil etc.

Use of some herbal plants

The major herbal plants found in Nepal and their uses are listed below:

a) Cardamom (Amomum Sublatum )


Seeds: Digestion, Lungs diseases

Oil from seeds: Aromatic, Allay inflammation

b) Amala (Phyllantus Emblica)


Fresh fruits: Digestion, Cooling, Diuretic

Dry fruits: Important constituents of “Triphala”, Dysentery, Anemia, Jaundice

Roots/Seeds: Asthma, Bronchitis

c) Asuro (Justica Adhatoda)

Uses:Antiseptic, Insecticidal, Cough, Asthma

d) Ban Lasun (Lilium Nepalense)

Uses: Relieving of pain in cardiac region

e ) Barro (Terminalia Bellirica)

Uses: As tonic, Piles, Cough

f) Bojho(Acorus Calamus)

Uses: Sore throat, Voice disorder, Diarrhea, Fever, Abdominal tumor, Dysentery

g) Harro (Terminala Chebula)

Uses: Constipation, Ulcer, Bleeding gums

h) Gheu kumari (Aloe vera)

Uses: Digestion, Cooling, Piles, Vomiting, Cosmetic preparation

i) Neem (Azadirachta Indica)


Bark: Cough, Vomiting, Burning sensation, Fever, Leprosy

Bulk Packaging and Labeling:

Processed medicinal plant materials should be packaged as quickly as possible to prevent deterioration of the products. Low-quality materials, diseased materials, and theforeign matters should be removed before packaging. The processed herbal products should be packaged in clean, dry boxes, sacks, bags or other containers. Materials used for packaging should be non-polluting, clean, dry and in undamaged condition and should conform to the quality requirements for herbal plant materials concerned. A label of a trademark with adequate information has to be put on the packaged materials so that it could help market promotion and enhance brand value.

1 .Classification of herbal plants

a) Based on parts used

b) Based on habit

c) Based on therapeutic value

Major aspect in herbal plant cultivation

a) Identification of local herbal plants

b) Collection time and methodology

c)  Storage and preservation


Questions and Answers

Click on the questions below to reveal the answers

The several steps for processing herbal plants are :

  • Drying
  • Proper storage
  • Proper cleaning
  • Collection of required parts of medicinal plant
  • Removal of unwanted objects
  • Cooking/Crushing/Evaporation/Extraction of oil etc.

The parts of the herbal plants used for the medicinal purposes are roots, bark, leaves, steam, flowers, fruit, whole plant gum and resins.

Herbal plants are the plants that have a medicinal significance or are used in some ways in making medicine.

The uses of Gheukumari are digestion, cooling, piles, vomiting, cosmetic etc.

The uses of Acorus Calamus are sore throat, voice disorder, diarrhea, fever, abdominal tumor and dysentery.

Neem and Dalchini are collected in the months of Falgun-Baisakh.

The uses of Amomum Sublatum are for digestion and  for preventing  lungs diseases.

  • Herbal plants can be used for ________________________.

    making bags
    making medicines
    making pencils
    making papers
  •  Roots of jatamasi is collected in the months of ________________.

    Asoj- Chaitra
  • Aromatic plants are used to make essential __________________.

  • The uses of Juglans Regia is for _________________.

    hair growth
  • The uses of Azadirachta Indica is to _______________.

    prevent vomiting
    cure piles
    grow hair
     prevent leprosy
  • Major aspect in herbal plant cultivation is ________________.


    cosmetic preparation
    storage and preservation
  • Herbal plants are easily damaged by _______________.

  • ______are used to make essential oils.

    Mustard plants
    Sunflower plants
    Aromatic plants
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parts used iof bojo

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Describe about Aloe veratourn

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what is the use of tej pata

medicinal plant

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What is importance of packaging in medicinal plants ?

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