Environment and Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development
The environment is natural, it is known as all aspect of the surroundings comprising living and non-living things. It refers to the condition, circumstances and the surroundings of an organism or group of organism. There are two aspects of the environment: artificial environment and natural environment. An artificial environment is made by human as their needs and wants likewise social, economic, religious, political, commercial infrastructure. Natural resources are the gift of nature which are free like air, light, water, land, etc. The concept of natural resources management adopts the theory of carrying capacity of the natural eco-system.
Natural resource management includes the following concepts:
Land and Soil Management
It suggests using an organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer in order to prevent soil pollution. It helps in maximizing the productivity of the soil.
It includes the deforestation, illegal trading of forest products including timber, animals and their parts, rare and endangered animals and plants.
Water Resources Management
It consists of industrial waste management to protect the water resources and minimize the uses of chemicals and synthetic substances by increasing public awareness.
Mineral Resource Management
It searches for alternative energy sources and renewable natural resources. In includes exploration and exploitation of minerals resources without deteriorating the environment.
Causes of Environment Degradation in Nepal
Environmental Pollution is the serious problem in the developing country like Nepal. Some of the reasons are explained below:
Rapid Population Growth As the size of population increases, needs and wants increases itself. To meet these requirements they may use natural resources which cause environmental pollution.
Growing Deforestation Forest resources are the easy method to fulfill human wants. They can sell timber, herbal and firewood. Because of these reasons landslides, flood and natural rain has become common.
Inadequate Public Awareness In rural areas, there are still uneducated people who are unknown about the advantages of resources. Therefore, they use the resources in their own way which is harming the environment.
Unscientific Government Policy The environment policy of HMG/Nepal is totally ineffective. The government is a failure in controlling vehicle pollution in city area which is increasing air and water pollution.
Lack of Resources Reutilization Any plan and policies and not invented for the reuse of waste material like polluted water, plastic materials and bags and papers.
Unscientific Urban Growth The urban regions of Nepal are not developed yet. There is a lack of coordination among the government organizations on a construction of basic infrastructures.
Migration Migration has been a great problem for the environment as the migration from hills and mountain to the Terai is rapid.
Argo-based Economy Most of the Nepalese are involved in the agriculture sector. They have to depend on forest-based resources to carry out agricultural activities.
Uses of Chemicals Uses of chemicals have been defecting environment very badly. Uneducated farmers do not dispose of the residual chemicals properly due to which many creature and vegetation have disappeared from the earth.
Consequences of Environmental Mismanagement
The major consequences of environmental mismanagement are explained below:
Air Pollution Air pollution is mostly found in urban areas. Vehicles and industries have risen the air pollution which has resulted in air-borne diseases like hypertension, lungs problem and high blood pressure.
Soil Pollution Uses of the chemical have risen soil erosion rapidly. It has increased acidity in the soil, reduce fertility and accelerated the process of deforestation in the country.
Water Pollution Water resources are being polluted due to the negligence, mix-up of industrial wastage and drainage with drinking water.
Noise Pollution Means of transportation is the major problem of noise pollution. It has adversely affected the lives of people.
Global Warming Due to global warming, atmospheric change is occurring in the world. The human lives have been affected tremendously and eco-system has deteriorated.