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Note on Change On Earth's Surface

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Elements that Transform The Surface of The Earth

The surface of the earth is made up of soil and rock. Most of the part of the earth is made of rock> Rock are also found below the sea as well as in interior part of the earth.


Types of Rock:

  • Igneous rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Metamorphic rocks

Element Symbol Percentage

Oxygen O 46.6

Silicon Si 27.7

Aluminium Al 8.1

Iron Fe 5

Calcium Ca 3.6

Sodium Na 2.8

Potassium K 2.6

Magnesium Mg 2.1

other - 1.5

Total 100

The outer surface of the earth is uneven as there is the presence of high mountains, plateaus and plains. The uneven outer surface is known as topography. The earth surface is always changing. It is believed that nearly 30 million years ago, Nepal and Himalayas were in the womb of Tethys Ocean stretching from the northern part of India to the southern part of Tibet.

The change is sometimes sudden and sometimes over a period. There are two kinds of agents that cause change. They are :

Rivers

Internal Agents:

  • Glacier
  • Wind
  • Waves


External Agents:

  • Earthquake
  • volcano

  • The change is sometimes sudden and sometimes over a period. There are two kinds of agents that cause change. 
  • Earthquake and volcano are considered as the internal agents of change in the surface of the earth.
  • Rivers, Glacier, Winds, Waves are considered as the external agents of change in the surface of the earth.
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Very Short Questions

Shale – sedimentary rocks
Marble – Metamorphic rocks
Pumice – Volcanic (Igneous)
Basalt – Volcanic (Igneous)
Slate – Metamorphic rocks
Conglomerate – sedimentary rocks
Obsidian – Volcanic (Igneous)
Schist – Metamorphic rocks
Limestone – sedimentary rocks

Igneous and metamorphic rocks never have fossil on them because they are formed at high temperature where there are no fossils.

Plutonic rocks have big crystals because it is formed by cooling of magma inside rock.

Pumice floats on water because they are porous in nature.

Silica is a mineral whereas sandstone is a rock because silica is pure substance and sandstone is formed from the minerals.

Minerals are natural solid, crystalline and pure substances found in the crust of the earth.

Minerals differ with each other in colour, luster, hardness and cleavage.

  • Sedimentary rocks e.g. shale and coal
  • Igneous rock e.g. Basalt and pumice
  • Metamorphic rocks e.g. Marble and slate

Rocks are advantageous to us because they are used to build monuments. Hydroelectric dams are built by using rocks. Rocks are used as gravel for the construction. Rocks are used as minerals. Hence, they are used as main source of energy.

When the sediment remains for thousands of years at pressure it gets cemented together. In this way sedimentary rocks are formed.

When magma trying to come out at the surface of the earth gets cooled inside the earth, it forms plutonic rocks.

The main components of rocks are sails, pebbles, sand and different types of minerals.

The uses of rocks are:

  • Hydroelectric dams are built by using rocks.
  • They are used to build monuments.
  • Slate is used to make roof of the houses.
  • Granites are widely used in the construction of temples.
  • They are used for research which helps to study history.
  • They are used as sources of minerals.

The hard and solid part of the earth crust is known as rock Its types are: i) Igneous rock
ii) Sedimentary rock
iii) Metamorphic rock

The rocks which are formed by the cooling of magma when it comes on the earth surface is called igneous rock. They are formed when the hot magma from the interior part of the earth comes out on the earth crust and solidify to a type of rock known as igneous rocks. They are very hard and crystalline

The rocks which are formed by the sedimentation of remains of plants and animals for thousands of years are known as sedimentary rocks. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year. Under high temperature and pressure, they get cemented together and convert into sedimentary rocks. Such rocks are rich in fossils and soft in nature.

The rocks which are formed from the sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks under heat and pressure are known as metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock is formed due to the certain modification in sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks due to the effect of heat and pressure. For example: limestone converts into marble, shale into slate, etc.

Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks
They are formed when the hot magma from the interior part of the earth comes out on the earth crust and solidifies. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year
They do not contain any fossils They contain fossils
Eg: Basalt, obsidian, pumice, etc. Eg: shale, limestone, etc.

Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rock is formed due to the certain modification in sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks due to the effect of heat and pressure. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year
They may or may not contain fossils They contain fossils
Eg: marble, gneiss, etc. Eg: shale, limestone, etc.

The layer of earth below the earth crust contain the materials in a hot molten state known as magma.

The hot molten magma after reaching the earth's surface is known as lava.

Magma Lava
The hot molten liquid present in the interior part of the earth is called magma. The same magma after coming out on the earth's surface is known as lava
Magma when comes out on the earth forms lava Lava, after cooling and solidifying, forms rocks.

The hard and solid part of the earth's surface is known as the rock. Rocks may be composed of one or more minerals. Rock may be in the form of the smaller rocks as well in the form of boulders. Not only in the form of hard and boulders, rocks are also found in the form of sand and fine clay. The hard rocky surface of the earth is covered with the soil. The differentlayers of rocks are bedrock, subsoil and topsoil.

The materials in the inner part of the earth are in molten state due to high temperature and pressure.

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  • The volcano which erupts at the present time is called

    Dormant volcano
    extinct volcano
    none of above
    Active volcano
  • Some volcanoes erupt in long intervals due to which there is no chance for eruption at present but expected to erupt at future is known as

    extinct volcano
    none of above
    Dormant volcano
    Active volcano
  • The volcanoes which erupted in the past, are not erupting now and have no chance of erupting in future is known as

    Active volcano
    none of above
    Dormant volcano
    extinct volcano
  • The point under the earth surface where the earthquake originates is called

    ortho center
    epi center
    hypo center
    circum center
  • The hole from which the lava comes out is known as

    glacier
    crater
    conduit
    epi center
  • The circular pipe connecting the crater to the reservoir is known as

    glacier
    crater
    epi center
    conduit
  • How many volcanic mountain are there in Nepal?

    three
    not any
    one
    two
  • What causes tsunami?

    Earth quake
    Soil Erosion
    Tornado
    Landslide
  • Which process forms U shaped valleys?

    waves
    Landslide
    Tornado
    Glacier
  • Which is not a landform caused by waves

    bay and cape
    cliff
    beach
    U shaped valley
  • The place where the earthquake originates is

    surface
    focus
    epicenter
    crust
  • Which is not a type of volcano?

    Dormant volcano
    Active volcano
    Red volcano
    Extinct volcano
  • Which factor causes internal change?

    Earthquake
    Rivers
    Flood
    Glacier
  • What is name of instrument to measure earthquake?

    Seismograph
    Earth motion detector
    Radiograph
    Earthquake detector
  • What is the unit to measure earthquake?

    meter per second
    Richer scale
    Butler scale
    Richter scale
  • What is not a result of Earthquake?

    scattering of gas mine
    Draught
    tsunami
    destruction of building
  • The hole from which lava comes out is?

    lava centre
    epicenter
    Crater
    none
  • Shape of volcanic mountains is

    cylindrical
    rectangular
    round
    Cone
  • What is a conduit?

    none
    A type of vehicle
    a device that conducts electricity
    Passage that connect crater and lava reservoir
  • Which is not a new feature formed by river erosion?

    alluvial plain
    Cow-bow lake
    none
    alluvial fan
  • Which is false about glaciers?

    they are few meters thick
    it forms U shaped valleys
    they move very slowly
    it is composed of ice
  • What is the pebbles, sand and stone inside a glacier called?

    Grinder
    Moraine
    Loraine
    Cocaine
  • What is loess?

    A plane formed by depositional action of the winds
    A cave with crystals growing in them
    A type of crater
    A type of wave
  • What creates a Gara?

    rivers
    glaciers
    Wind
    waves
  • What creates a bay?

    wind
    glaciers
    Waves
    rivers
  • What causes wind movement?

    gravity
    rotation of earth
    difference in air pressure
    none
  • What can cause distortion of coastlines?

    glacier
    waves
    rivers
    winds
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