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Change On Earth's Surface

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Elements that Transform The Surface of The Earth

The surface of the earth is made up of soil and rock. Most of the part of the earth is made of rock> Rock are also found below the sea as well as in interior part of the earth.


Types of Rock:

  • Igneous rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Metamorphic rocks

Element Symbol Percentage

Oxygen O 46.6

Silicon Si 27.7

Aluminium Al 8.1

Iron Fe 5

Calcium Ca 3.6

Sodium Na 2.8

Potassium K 2.6

Magnesium Mg 2.1

other - 1.5

Total 100

The outer surface of the earth is uneven as there is the presence of high mountains, plateaus and plains. The uneven outer surface is known as topography. The earth surface is always changing. It is believed that nearly 30 million years ago, Nepal and Himalayas were in the womb of Tethys Ocean stretching from the northern part of India to the southern part of Tibet.

The change is sometimes sudden and sometimes over a period. There are two kinds of agents that cause change. They are :

Rivers

Internal Agents:

  • Glacier
  • Wind
  • Waves


External Agents:

  • Earthquake
  • volcano



  • The change is sometimes sudden and sometimes over a period. There are two kinds of agents that cause change. 
  • Earthquake and volcano are considered as the internal agents of change in the surface of the earth.
  • Rivers, Glacier, Winds, Waves are considered as the external agents of change in the surface of the earth.
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Very Short Questions

Shale – sedimentary rocks
Marble – Metamorphic rocks
Pumice – Volcanic (Igneous)
Basalt – Volcanic (Igneous)
Slate – Metamorphic rocks
Conglomerate – sedimentary rocks
Obsidian – Volcanic (Igneous)
Schist – Metamorphic rocks
Limestone – sedimentary rocks

Igneous and metamorphic rocks never have fossil on them because they are formed at high temperature where there are no fossils.

Plutonic rocks have big crystals because it is formed by cooling of magma inside rock.

Pumice floats on water because they are porous in nature.

Silica is a mineral whereas sandstone is a rock because silica is pure substance and sandstone is formed from the minerals.

Minerals are natural solid, crystalline and pure substances found in the crust of the earth.

Minerals differ with each other in colour, luster, hardness and cleavage.

  • Sedimentary rocks e.g. shale and coal
  • Igneous rock e.g. Basalt and pumice
  • Metamorphic rocks e.g. Marble and slate

Rocks are advantageous to us because they are used to build monuments. Hydroelectric dams are built by using rocks. Rocks are used as gravel for the construction. Rocks are used as minerals. Hence, they are used as main source of energy.

When the sediment remains for thousands of years at pressure it gets cemented together. In this way sedimentary rocks are formed.

When magma trying to come out at the surface of the earth gets cooled inside the earth, it forms plutonic rocks.

The main components of rocks are sails, pebbles, sand and different types of minerals.

The uses of rocks are:

  • Hydroelectric dams are built by using rocks.
  • They are used to build monuments.
  • Slate is used to make roof of the houses.
  • Granites are widely used in the construction of temples.
  • They are used for research which helps to study history.
  • They are used as sources of minerals.

The hard and solid part of the earth crust is known as rock Its types are: i) Igneous rock
ii) Sedimentary rock
iii) Metamorphic rock

The rocks which are formed by the cooling of magma when it comes on the earth surface is called igneous rock. They are formed when the hot magma from the interior part of the earth comes out on the earth crust and solidify to a type of rock known as igneous rocks. They are very hard and crystalline

The rocks which are formed by the sedimentation of remains of plants and animals for thousands of years are known as sedimentary rocks. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year. Under high temperature and pressure, they get cemented together and convert into sedimentary rocks. Such rocks are rich in fossils and soft in nature.

The rocks which are formed from the sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks under heat and pressure are known as metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock is formed due to the certain modification in sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks due to the effect of heat and pressure. For example: limestone converts into marble, shale into slate, etc.

Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks
They are formed when the hot magma from the interior part of the earth comes out on the earth crust and solidifies. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year
They do not contain any fossils They contain fossils
Eg: Basalt, obsidian, pumice, etc. Eg: shale, limestone, etc.

Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rock is formed due to the certain modification in sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks due to the effect of heat and pressure. They are formed by the deposition of remains of plants and animals for thousands of year
They may or may not contain fossils They contain fossils
Eg: marble, gneiss, etc. Eg: shale, limestone, etc.

The layer of earth below the earth crust contain the materials in a hot molten state known as magma.

The hot molten magma after reaching the earth's surface is known as lava.

Magma Lava
The hot molten liquid present in the interior part of the earth is called magma. The same magma after coming out on the earth's surface is known as lava
Magma when comes out on the earth forms lava Lava, after cooling and solidifying, forms rocks.

The hard and solid part of the earth's surface is known as the rock. Rocks may be composed of one or more minerals. Rock may be in the form of the smaller rocks as well in the form of boulders. Not only in the form of hard and boulders, rocks are also found in the form of sand and fine clay. The hard rocky surface of the earth is covered with the soil. The differentlayers of rocks are bedrock, subsoil and topsoil.

The materials in the inner part of the earth are in molten state due to high temperature and pressure.

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  • The volcano which erupts at the present time is called

    extinct volcano
    none of above
    Dormant volcano
    Active volcano
  • Some volcanoes erupt in long intervals due to which there is no chance for eruption at present but expected to erupt at future is known as

    Active volcano
    Dormant volcano
    none of above
    extinct volcano
  • The volcanoes which erupted in the past, are not erupting now and have no chance of erupting in future is known as

    none of above
    Active volcano
    extinct volcano
    Dormant volcano
  • The point under the earth surface where the earthquake originates is called

    ortho center
    epi center
    hypo center
    circum center
  • The hole from which the lava comes out is known as

    glacier
    epi center
    conduit
    crater
  • The circular pipe connecting the crater to the reservoir is known as

    epi center
    glacier
    conduit
    crater
  • How many volcanic mountain are there in Nepal?

    not any
    three
    one
    two
  • What causes tsunami?

    Soil Erosion
    Earth quake
    Tornado
    Landslide
  • Which process forms U shaped valleys?

    Landslide
    Tornado
    waves
    Glacier
  • Which is not a landform caused by waves

    bay and cape
    U shaped valley
    cliff
    beach
  • The place where the earthquake originates is

    crust
    surface
    epicenter
    focus
  • Which is not a type of volcano?

    Active volcano
    Dormant volcano
    Extinct volcano
    Red volcano
  • Which factor causes internal change?

    Glacier
    Earthquake
    Flood
    Rivers
  • What is name of instrument to measure earthquake?

    Earth motion detector
    Earthquake detector
    Radiograph
    Seismograph
  • What is the unit to measure earthquake?

    meter per second
    Richer scale
    Butler scale
    Richter scale
  • What is not a result of Earthquake?

    destruction of building
    tsunami
    scattering of gas mine
    Draught
  • The hole from which lava comes out is?

    none
    lava centre
    Crater
    epicenter
  • Shape of volcanic mountains is

    round
    Cone
    rectangular
    cylindrical
  • What is a conduit?

    A type of vehicle
    a device that conducts electricity
    Passage that connect crater and lava reservoir
    none
  • Which is not a new feature formed by river erosion?

    alluvial fan
    none
    Cow-bow lake
    alluvial plain
  • Which is false about glaciers?

    they move very slowly
    it forms U shaped valleys
    it is composed of ice
    they are few meters thick
  • What is the pebbles, sand and stone inside a glacier called?

    Grinder
    Cocaine
    Loraine
    Moraine
  • What is loess?

    A cave with crystals growing in them
    A type of crater
    A plane formed by depositional action of the winds
    A type of wave
  • What creates a Gara?

    glaciers
    rivers
    waves
    Wind
  • What creates a bay?

    glaciers
    wind
    rivers
    Waves
  • What causes wind movement?

    difference in air pressure
    gravity
    none
    rotation of earth
  • What can cause distortion of coastlines?

    rivers
    waves
    glacier
    winds
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