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Introduction to forest and Water resources

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Forest Conservation

A forest can be defined as a biotic community with a majority of woody trees, herbs, shrubs and a lot of vegetation.

Importance of forest

It is the rich source of raw materials like timber, wood etc. which are used by industries for various purpose.

  1. The forest is also the main source of herbs that are used in different fields like medicines, drugs, etc. and are also used for extracting essential oils.
  2. Forest plays a vital role in keeping atmospheric balance by consuming CO2 and releasing O2.
  3. It also contributes a lot in the tourism industry as it provides peace, beauty, and recreation.
  4. The forest is a habitat of different animals, plants, and microorganisms.
  5. Forest provide about 1000 million m3 of fuelwood to the world.

Forests of Nepal

In Nepal, forest cover 29% (43 thousand of the total area depending upon geographical location and climatic characteristics. There are three kinds of forest found in Nepal.

  • Tropical forest:It covers southern terai plains along chure hills. Remain evergreen due to adequate rainfall and sun. Valuable trees like sal, sisso, and animals like elephant, tiger, etc. are found here.
  • Temperate forest: It involves entire Mahabharat range. Leaves fall off at a season, so it is also known as deciduous monsoon forest. It includes trees like pines, poplar, and animals like bears, leopards, etc.
  • Alpine forest: It covers high Himalayan mountain valleys. It is rich in rhododendron and coniferous varieties. Animals like Tsauri, Ghoral. etc. are found here.



It is the process of establishment of forest or varieties of trees, siblings or seeds in an area where there was no forest.


  • Balance forest resources and wildlife resources.
  • Controls soil erosion and landslide.
  • Maintains pleasant climate with enough rainfall.
  • Helps to minimize environmental pollution and global warming.
  • It develops eco-tourism.



It is illegal cutting or loss of forest trees. In Nepal, it is proceeding at the rate of 100 thousand hectares per year.


  • Increased demand for timber and fuel.
  • Due to population growth and it's needs and desires.
  • Mining and extraction of minerals, oils, and gases.
  • Overgrazing of cattle.


  • Causes soil erosion.
  • Destruction of wildlife habitat.
  • Causes flooding and landslide.
  • Decrease the fertility of the soil.
  • Results in ecological imbalances.

Forest conservation

Forest conservation
fig: Forest conservation

There are various ways for the conservation of forest which are as follows:

  • Afforestation programs should be organized with local participation.
  • Public awareness should be raised.
  • Plantation of trees along the roadside, canal, and rail lines.
  • Preservation and management of community forest under the supervision of local communities.
  • Overgrazing should be stopped.
  • For fuel and energy, alternative sources of energy should be used.

Water resources

Water resources
fig: Water resources

Water is essential for the living organisms. Water resources are the sources of water that are potentially useful to humans. The total water on earth is 1.46 x 109cubic kilometer, 90% found in oceans, 4.1% on earth, 2.0% in the glacier and 0.052% in a lake, river. There are various sources of water like rivers, rainfall, glaciers.


Water is used for various purposes such as:

  • It is used for drinking.
  • For irrigation.
  • It is used for generating hydroelectric power.
  • It provides shelter for billions of aquatic animals.
  • It is also used for various industrial purposes.


  • Due to lack of rainfall sometimes droughts produced.
  • Excess rain and uneven distribution of water result in flood, landslide, etc. causing heavy loss.
  • Waste of human society and various industries is disposed of in the water sources making water pollution which are not fit for drinking. Such water if consumed causes various types of diseases.

Conservation of water resources

There are various ways for the conservation of water resources which are as follows:

  • Proper management of waste, drainage system, etc. should be made.
  • Public awareness should be raised.
  • Good utilization of water should be done.
  • Maintenance of water resources as per the need of present and future generation.
  • Strick laws and plans should be made for the protection of water resources.

  • The total area of forest in Nepal is about 43 thousand
  • Three types of forest are found in Nepal which are tropical forest, temperate forest, and alpine forest.
  • The forest is used as the source of herbs, fuel, and for various industrial purposes.
  • Hazards of deforestations are soil erosion, ecological imbalance, flooding, and landslide, etc.
  • Afforestation is the process of establishment of forest or varieties of trees, siblings or seeds in an area where there was no forest.

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