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Tense

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Tense

There are three kinds of tense in English grammar. They are present, past and future tense. Each tense has four branches .i.e. simple, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous.

  1. Present tense
    a) Simple present (sub + v1/v2 + obj)
    It is used to show present of fairs, habitual facts, truths, saying and proverbs, works etc. For eg- Ram plays cricket. I eat food.

    b) Present continuous (sub + is/am/are + v4 + obj)
    It is used to show progressive action, fixed and decided future planning or arrangements. For eg- They are playing cricket. She is planning to visit Pokhara.

    c) Present perfect (sub + has/have + v3 + obj)
    It is used to show recently finished action with the result in present situation.
    For eg- They have gone home.
    He has eaten food.

    d) Present perfect continuous (sub + has/have + been + v4 + obj)
    It is used to show an action that has already been in past but it is still going on in the present. For eg- They have been reading since morning.She has been singing for 1 hour.
  1. Past tense
    a) Simple past (sub + v2 + obj)
    It is used to show past action and generally used with last, ago, yesterday, those days etc. For eg- He visited Europe last year. I played ball yesterday.

    b) Past continuous (sub + was/were + v4 + obj)
    It is used to show the action that was going for sometime in the past. For eg- They were preparing for their exam. He was playing with his brothers.

    c) Past perfect (sub + had + v3 + obj)
    It is used to show the occurrence of two past actions that had already been completed before another action started. For eg- We had prepared well for our exam. They have joined a lot in the last picnic.

    d) Past perfect continuous (sub + had + been + v4 + obj)
    It is used to show the action that had been going on in the past before another action started. For eg- I had been reading for 2 hours. They had been dancing since morning.

    Future tense

    a) Simple future (sub + shall/will + v1 + obj)
    It is used to express the action that takes place at a time in the future. Tomorrow, soon, next day, tonight etc are used in single words used in this tense. For eg- I’ll visit Bhaktapur tomorrow. I shall complete my work tonight.

    b) Future continuous (sub + shall/will + be + v4 + obj)
    It is used to show the action that will be going on at sometime in the future. For eg- They will be visiting zoo tomorrow. I shall be reading the story next day.

    c) Future perfect (sub + shall will + have + v3 + obj)
    It is used to express the action that will be completed before a certain action or period of time in the future. And it is generally used with ‘by + period of time’, ‘in + period of time’, ‘before + period of time’. For eg- I’ll have visited Pokhara by Ashad.

    d) Future perfect continuous (sub + shall/will + have been + v4 + obj)
    It is used to express the action that has been going for a certain time in the future. For eg- I shall have been visiting temple tomorrow.


Read the letter and find sentences for the following tense.

a) Simple past

Ans: I came to Kathmandu from Pokhara.

b) Present perfect

Ans: I’ve been visiting Bhaktapur with Millie for five days.

c) Present perfect

Ans: I’ve learnt a lot about this city.

d) Simple present

Ans: It represents the essence of the Newari city.

e) Present continuous

Ans: Bhaktapur is a fascinating place.

  1. Answer these questions.

QNO.1. When did Taniya come to Kathmandu?

Ans: Taniya came to Kathmandu before one week.

QNO.2. What has she been doing for five days?

Ans: She has been visiting Bhaktapur with Millie for five days.

QNO.3. What information did she give to Anu?

Ans: She gave the following information to Anu. She said that Bhaktapur represents the essence of the Newari city. There are many temples, shrines and durbar squares, public water sources etc in the city.

QNO.4. Where will Taniya lie next week?

Ans: Taniya will be at Lumbini next week.


Correct the following sentences.

  1. I’ve visiting Bhaktapur.

Ans: I’ve visited Bhaktapur.

  1. I has learnt a lot about this city.

Ans: I’ve learnt a lot about this city.

  1. I’ve already visit a few of them.

Ans: I’ve already visited a few of them.

  1. We’re plan to visit Lumbini next week.

Ans: We’re planning to visit Lumbini next week.

  1. Why don’t you joined us?

Ans: Why don’t you join us?



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