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Common name: Moss
Funaria is a widely distributed moss. There are about 117 species of Funaria. It is found in moist habitat such as in the moist wall, tree trunk, rock, soil etc.
The gametophytic plant is dominant, erect and differentiated into rhizoid, axis, and leaf. It grows up to 1 to 3 cm length.
Rhizoids develop from the basal region of the axis. Rhizoids are the multicellular, branched and slender structure with oblique septa. They help in fixation and absorption of water and minerals.
Axis is aerial, erect and slender and branched. There is monopodial and extra-axillary branching.
Leaf is simple, sessile, ovate. There is distinct midrib. Leaves are arranged spirally in 3/8 phyllotaxy.
It is outermost single layered. It is made up of parenchymatous cells. It lacks stomata but contains chloroplast.
It is present below the epidermis. It is multilayered and made up of a parenchymatous cell. It is differentiated into the outer cortex and inner cortex. The young cells of cortex contain chloroplast.
It is present at the centre. It is made up of narrow, elongated, parenchymatous cells. It gives mechanical support and help in conduction.
Leaf has a single layer of cells except at midrib. The midrib is multilayered similar to the central cylinder. The cells of leaf contain chloroplast.
In the fun area, reproduction takes place by the vegetative method and sexual method.
Vegetative reproduction takes place by different methods. They are:
Primary protonema develops from the spore. Protonema is the multicellular filamentous and branched structure which bears buds. Protonema breaks into fragments due to mechanical injury or death of intercalary cells. Fragments bear buds and each bud can develop into new fun area plant.
Apospory is the process in which there is the development of gametophyte directly from the sporophyte without the formation of spore from the wounded part. It is rarer in nature and helps in the development of new species.
Secondary protonema develops from the injured part of the gametophyte. Secondary protonema also bears bud and each bud can develop into a new plant.
Gemma is a multicellular structure which develops at the terminal part of the protonema. It may develop during drought or from the injured part of rhizoid axis or leaves. When gemma develops from rhizoid, it is subterranean in nature and also known as a tuber. Gemma can also develop into a new plant.
The rhizoids develop the small bulbils-like structure which is similar to gemma in form and behaviour. Later they get attached from the rhizoids and grow to foils new plants.