The protection of all hardware and software components used in computer system is called computer security. A phenomenal amount of information now resides on computers. Individual computers as well as computers that communicate with each other in geographically-restricted local networks as well as globally, via the internet, contain billions of pages of text, graphics, and other sources of information. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users.
The entire point of computer security is to eliminate or protect against threats. A threat is any thing that can cause harm. In the context of computer security, a threat can be a burglar, a virus, cyber crime, human error, war and terrorist activity, hardware failure or natural disasters.
The protection of all hardware components used in computer system is called hardware security. Hardware security protects the machine and peripheral hardware from theft, electric hazard and vandalism of the equipment.
Regular maintenance is necessary for proper functioning of the computer. We should clean our computer and its peripherals by using dust cleaner. We should scan hard disk using latest and updated antivirus software to make the system virus free.
The term 'insurance' is not new for us. Generally, people ensure their health, life, company, building, vehicles, etc. But nowadays people ensure their computer also. If the computer is damaged or theft, we can claim the insurance amount and get the system replaced with a new one. So, it is also a computer security measure.
Dust is one of the major factors which causes infection to our computer system. Dust affects external as well as internal parts of computer system. So, we should keep our computer at a dust and smoke free place. We should use dust cleaner or cover (cloth or plastic) to prevent our computer from dust. Smoke can also damage many parts of our computer system. So, we should keep our computer free from smoke.
We should maintain suitable temperature, moisture and circulation of air in the computer room. Low or high temperature in the computer system may cause unexpected crashes during the operation of computers. Heat can break down contracts or junctions the chip or other devices. So, there should be proper air condition to maintain suitable temperature in the computer system. Similarly, there should be enough light in the computer system.
A computer requires a steady voltage of 110 V or 220 V. The fluctuations (rise or fall) in electric voltage or frequent power failure can damage computer hardware. The device that protects the computer system from the fluctuation of electric voltage or frequent power failure is known as power protection device.
Types of Power Protection Device
The protection of data and programs used in computer system is known as software security. Software security provides barriers and other cyber-tools that protect programs, files, operating systems and the information flow to and from a computer.
Some common software security are:
A password is a secret word or phrase that provides uses access to a particular program system. Every software enable you to password-protect a variety of resources. If you use any network features, you should password protect them frequently. Experts advise that you use long password and do not use long passwords that could be easily guessed. Never use blank password.
Backup means to store some copy of programs, operating system, compilers, data, information, etc. permanently in secondary storage devices like hard disk, floppy disk, etc. A simple disk error can do just as much damage as a hacker might do. And even the most experienced computer user occasionally deletes a file or folder by accident. So, backup is very essential.
Some software use hard lock key which is connected to one of the ports of the computer. When software is executed it checks for hard lock. If the hard lock key is absent then the software does not execute. This protects the software from pirated use.
Computer viruses are the most effective factor of data and software. Virus may damage our data and software. Virus produces several unusual symptoms in our computer and gives trouble to the user while working with computer. So, we should keep our computer free from virus. For that we should scan our computer regularly using latest and updated anti -virus software.
A firewall's main purpose is to prohibit unauthorized access to your computer via the internet. A functioning firewall is your best defense against hackers or anyone else who might try to reach your PC via the internet. There are various kinds of firewalls both hardware and software and they can use different methods to keep intruders way from your system.
Along with the password and antivirus protection encryption protection is the another way of data security. It is one of the best ways of securing data. It is the conversion of electronic data in other form called ciphertext which cannot be easily understood. There are many algorithms that support encryption. These algorithms are placed in the software like TrueCrypt which converts regular data to encrypted data and can be deciphered later when data reaches safe hands. The use of encryption is widely used on the internet or our monetary system. The transactions made on the internet are encrypted so that nobody can eavesdrop in the data and misuse it.
Cyber law is a term that deals with the Internet's relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information system. Simply, cyber law is the law which is used for stopping computer crime and abuse .
In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced a loom. The device allowed the repetition of series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime!
Cyber law of Nepal was established on 30th Bhadra , 2061 B.S or 15th September, 2004 A.D
It is important because it helps to control crime related to internet.
It is very common in computer society . The hacking of data is more profitable than robbing a bank . Some destructive brain design computer virus and link to internet for everyone's access . These viruses damage the file system of computers . They also collect important information such as username and passwords and are delivered to the person who created the virus.
Hacking :Internationally gaining unauthorized access to an important system is known as hacking .
Cracker :A cracker is a computer user who attempts a break into copyright software or an information system .
It is the technology process that entails the emission , transmission and reception of signals , representing symbol , text , images etc. through wires, radio, electric media , optic cables or other electro-magnetic system .
A digital signature is the digital identity of the sender that uniquely identifies the particular sender electronically.
Its a branch of practical principal that deals with how the computer experts should make decision in regard to the social and professional behavior .
Major provision of Computer ethics
"The electronic transaction and digital signature Act. - ordinance " is popularly known as cyber law of Nepal . The government of Nepal had passed this law on 30th Bhadra 2061 B.S. ( 15th September 2004 ).
Provision of this Act are
When the information technology started for the first time in world there was no law about it . But in course of time many problems and evils appeared . For the control of such evils and problems or to control the situation people realized the need of law according to time .
America started making the International cyber law as follows :
Which one of the following does not fall under hardware security?
____________is popularly known as cyber law of Nepal .
A generic term that is concern with the legal and regulatory aspect of internet and computer technology is called ______.