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Note on Computer Security

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The protection of all hardware and software components used in computer system is called computer security. A phenomenal amount of information now resides on computers. Individual computers as well as computers that communicate with each other in geographically-restricted local networks as well as globally, via the internet, contain billions of pages of text, graphics, and other sources of information. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users.

Threats

The entire point of computer security is to eliminate or protect against threats. A threat is any thing that can cause harm. In the context of computer security, a threat can be a burglar, a virus, cyber crime, human error, war and terrorist activity, hardware failure or natural disasters.

 

Hardware security

The protection of all hardware components used in computer system is called hardware security. Hardware security protects the machine and peripheral hardware from theft, electric hazard and vandalism of the equipment.

Types of hardware security

  • Regular maintenance
  • Insurance
  • Dust and Smoke free environment
  • Air condition
  • Power Protection device (UPS, Volt Guard and Spike Guard)
 


1. Regular maintenance:

Regular maintenance is necessary for proper functioning of the computer. We should clean our computer and its peripherals by using dust cleaner. We should scan hard disk using latest and updated antivirus software to make the system virus free.

 
2. Insurance:

The term 'insurance' is not new for us. Generally, people ensure their health, life, company, building, vehicles, etc. But nowadays people ensure their computer also. If the computer is damaged or theft, we can claim the insurance amount and get the system replaced with a new one. So, it is also a computer security measure.

 

3. Dust and Smoke Free environment:

Dust is one of the major factors which causes infection to our computer system. Dust affects external as well as internal parts of computer system. So, we should keep our computer at a dust and smoke free place. We should use dust cleaner or cover (cloth or plastic) to prevent our computer from dust. Smoke can also damage many parts of our computer system. So, we should keep our computer free from smoke.

 
4. Air condition:

We should maintain suitable temperature, moisture and circulation of air in the computer room. Low or high temperature in the computer system may cause unexpected crashes during the operation of computers. Heat can break down contracts or junctions the chip or other devices. So, there should be proper air condition to maintain suitable temperature in the computer system. Similarly, there should be enough light in the computer system.

5. Power Protection Device

A computer requires a steady voltage of 110 V or 220 V. The fluctuations (rise or fall) in electric voltage or frequent power failure can damage computer hardware. The device that protects the computer system from the fluctuation of electric voltage or frequent power failure is known as power protection device.

Types of Power Protection Device

  1. UPS(Uninterrupted Power Supply) : A UPS is a power protection device which stores electricity and provides backup power automatically to the computer when required so that huge amount of data is prevented from being lost.
  2. Volt Guard : A Volt Guard is an electrical regulator designed automatically to maintain a constant voltage level.
  3. Spike Guard :It is also a power protection device which is used to prevent computer from sudden high voltage (spikes) because in rainy season, it can control such voltage.

 

The protection of data and programs used in computer system is known as software security. Software security provides barriers and other cyber-tools that protect programs, files, operating systems and the information flow to and from a computer.

Some common software security are:

1. Password Protection

A password is a secret word or phrase that provides uses access to a particular program system. Every software enable you to password-protect a variety of resources. If you use any network features, you should password protect them frequently. Experts advise that you use long password and do not use long passwords that could be easily guessed. Never use blank password.

 

2. Backup

Backup means to store some copy of programs, operating system, compilers, data, information, etc. permanently in secondary storage devices like hard disk, floppy disk, etc. A simple disk error can do just as much damage as a hacker might do. And even the most experienced computer user occasionally deletes a file or folder by accident. So, backup is very essential.

 

3. Hard Lock Key

Some software use hard lock key which is connected to one of the ports of the computer. When software is executed it checks for hard lock. If the hard lock key is absent then the software does not execute. This protects the software from pirated use.

 

4. Virus scanning

Computer viruses are the most effective factor of data and software. Virus may damage our data and software. Virus produces several unusual symptoms in our computer and gives trouble to the user while working with computer. So, we should keep our computer free from virus. For that we should scan our computer regularly using latest and updated anti -virus software.

 
 

5. Using a Firewall

A firewall's main purpose is to prohibit unauthorized access to your computer via the internet. A functioning firewall is your best defense against hackers or anyone else who might try to reach your PC via the internet. There are various kinds of firewalls both hardware and software and they can use different methods to keep intruders way from your system.

 

6. Encryption:

Along with the password and antivirus protection encryption protection is the another way of data security. It is one of the best ways of securing data. It is the conversion of electronic data in other form called ciphertext which cannot be easily understood. There are many algorithms that support encryption. These algorithms are placed in the software like TrueCrypt which converts regular data to encrypted data and can be deciphered later when data reaches safe hands. The use of encryption is widely used on the internet or our monetary system. The transactions made on the internet are encrypted so that nobody can eavesdrop in the data and misuse it.

 

Cyber law is a term that deals with the Internet's relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information system. Simply, cyber law is the law which is used for stopping computer crime and abuse .

The First cyber crime

In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced a loom. The device allowed the repetition of series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime!

Cyber law of Nepal was established on 30th Bhadra , 2061 B.S or 15th September, 2004 A.D

Importance of Cyber law

It is important because it helps to control crime related to internet.

Provision of cyber law of NEPAL

  • It has strong provision for punishment against cyber crime.
  • It provides legal status to digital signatures and electronic records which in turn are used in electronic banking, shopping and commerce.
  • It provides laws for formation of judicial system that operates only for crimes related to computer (internet and cyber space).

Areas of Cyber law

  • Computer crime

    It is very common in computer society . The hacking of data is more profitable than robbing a bank . Some destructive brain design computer virus and link to internet for everyone's access . These viruses damage the file system of computers . They also collect important information such as username and passwords and are delivered to the person who created the virus.

    Hacking :Internationally gaining unauthorized access to an important system is known as hacking .

    Cracker :A cracker is a computer user who attempts a break into copyright software or an information system .

     
  • Telecommunication law

    It is the technology process that entails the emission , transmission and reception of signals , representing symbol , text , images etc. through wires, radio, electric media , optic cables or other electro-magnetic system .

  • Digital signature

    A digital signature is the digital identity of the sender that uniquely identifies the particular sender electronically.

 

Its a branch of practical principal that deals with how the computer experts should make decision in regard to the social and professional behavior .

Major provision of Computer ethics

  • You should not use computer to harm others .
  • You should not use computer to steal others file .
  • You should not use computer to search the file or record of other people .
  • You should not destroy , steal and use the computer password of other people.
  • You should not use computer to bear a false witness.
  • You should always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans (Computer Ethics Institute, 1992).
Cyber ethics mainly deals with the following domains;
  • Privacy
  • Property
  • Security
  • Accuracy
  • Accessibility, Censorship and Filtering

 

Cyber law in Nepal

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"The electronic transaction and digital signature Act. - ordinance " is popularly known as cyber law of Nepal . The government of Nepal had passed this law on 30th Bhadra 2061 B.S. ( 15th September 2004 ).

Provision of this Act are

  • Provision for license regarding the IT customer and their duties and responsibilities.
  • Provides punishment to the hacker who damages programs or data residing in other computer on network or illegally copies them.
  • Provision of bodies to create, control and verify the digital signature
  • Provision of network services.
  • Provision of the duty and responsibilities of the subscriber.
 

 

International cyber law

When the information technology started for the first time in world there was no law about it . But in course of time many problems and evils appeared . For the control of such evils and problems or to control the situation people realized the need of law according to time .

America started making the International cyber law as follows :

  • Fair credit reporting Act in 1970 : This law has made provision of the rights to see own credit record without paying
  • Freedom of Information Act in 1970 : This right is provided by the state to the public to see the information
  • Copyright Act 1992 : This law was made to stop unauthorized copy . The penalty is 5 years in custody and a fine of US dollar 250000.
  • Access Device Fraud: Fraud and related activity in connection with access devices.
  • CAN-SPAM ACT: Controlling The Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003.
 

  • The protection of all hardware and software components used in computer system is called computer security.
  • The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users.
  • The protection of all hardware components used in computer system is called hardware security.
  • Cyber law is a term that deals with the Internet's relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information system.
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Very Short Questions

0%
  • The protection of data and programs used in computer system is known as______.

    Defragmentation

    Hardware security
    Software security

    Back up

  • ______ means to store some copy of programs, operating system, compilers, data, information, etc.

    Scanning

    Defragmentation

    Password

    Backup
  • ______ is the process of rewriting part of a file to contiguous sector on hard disk to increase the speed of processing.

    Defragmentation

    Firewall

    Scanning

    Password Protection

  • _____ is a process, which analyzes and repairs logical and physical disk errors like files, folders, bad sectors and lost chains.

    Defragmentation

    Hard lock key

    Scan disk
    Password protection

  • Which of the following prohibits unauthorized access to your computer via the internet?

    Firewall

    Antivirus

    Defragmentation

    Password

  • Which one of the following is not a computer threat?

    virus

    hardware failure

    cyber crime

    murder

  • A computer requires a steady voltage of ______.

    about 100 V

     more that 200 V

    about 220 V
    Less than 100 V

  • Which of the following is not the type of hardware security?

    Defragmentation

    Insurance

    Regular maintenance

    Air condition

  • Which one of the following is power protective device?

    UPS

    Anti-virus

    Volt guard

    Spike guard

  • ______ is an electrical regulator designed automatically to maintain a constant voltage level.

    UPS

    Defragmentation

    Spike guard

    Volt guard

  • Which of the following does not fall under software security?

    Scandisk
    Backup System
    Defragmentation
    Insurance
  • Define scandisk:

    Scandisk use hard lock key which is connected to one of the ports of the computer.
    Scandisk is a process which prohibit unauthorized access to your computer via the internet.
    Scandisk is a process, which analyzes and repairs logical and physical disk errors like files, folders, bad sectors and lost chains.
    Scandisk is the process of rewriting part of a file to contiguous sector on hard disk to increase the speed of processing.
  • Which of the following can fix errors on commonly-used data storage devices?

    Hard Lock Key
    Backup System
    Scandisk
    Password
  • Which one of the following does not fall under hardware security?

    Insurance
    Backup System
    Regular maintenance
    Power Protection device
  • What is the full form of UPS?

    Uninterrupted Power Series
    Uninterrupted Power Supply
    Uninterrupted Point Supply
    United Power Supply
  • The protection of all hardware and software components used in computer is called _______.

    computer network
    computer security
    computer component
    computer system
  • How many types of case power supply unit are there?

    2
    5
    7
    3
  • What is power supply?

    All the answers are correct
    Pointing unit device
    Main electric supply point
    Which transfer data, instructions.
  • Which of the following does not fall under provision of computer ethics?

    You should not destroy , steal and use the computer password of other people.
    You should not use computer to harm others .
    You should not use computer to steal others file .
    You should not use computer just for entertaintment.
  • ____________is popularly known as cyber law of Nepal .





  • Which of the following statement is correct for Copyright Act 1992?

    None of them.
    This right is provided by the state to the public to see the information
    This law was made to stop unauthorized copy .
    This law has made provision of the rights to see own credit record without paying
  • Which of the following fall under Provision Act of Cyber Law of Nepal?

    Provides punishment to the hacker who damages programs or data residing in other computer on network or illegally copies them.
    Provision for license regarding the IT customer and their duties and responsibilities.
    Provision of bodies to create, control and verify the digital signature
    Provision to see rights to see own credit record.
  • __________ is a branch of practical principal that deals with how the computer experts should make decision in regard to the social and professional behavior.

    Cyber Law
    Telecommunication Law
    Computer Policy
    Computer Ethics
  • Virtual space created by computers networks , internet and telecommunication is called________.

    cyber Space
    cyber Crime
    digital Signature
    cyber law
  • When was cyber law established in Nepal?

    30th Bhadra , 2061 B.S
    30th Chaitra, 2061 B.S
    30th Chaitra, 2060 B.S
    30th Bhadra, 2060 B.S
  • Which of the following does not fall under areas of cyber law?

    Digital Signature
    Data Management

    Data Protection
    Telecommunication Law
  • Which of the following statement is correct for cracker?

    A cracker is a computer user who attempts a break into copyright software or an information system .
    A cracker is the technology process that entails the emission , transmission and reception of signals , representing symbol , text , images etc .
    A cracker is virtual space created by computers networks , internet and telecommunication
    A cracker is internationally gaining unauthorized access to an important system.
  • A generic term that is concern with the legal and regulatory aspect of internet and computer technology is called ______.

    Copyright law


    Cyber crime


    Computer crime


    Cyber law


  • Cyber law of Nepal was enacted in Nepal in _____.

    2062
    2061
    2063
    2064
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