Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on General approach to understand Life process
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Living organisms do have the characteristic feature which is lacking in nonliving things i.e. life processes. Living organisms have a living material called protoplasm which constitutes the living system. Living organisms may have the following properties;
All the living organism either plants or animals have definite shape and size due to which we can distinguish them from each other. Non-living has not definite shape and size for eg; stone, sand, water etc but living beings like a frog, snake etc have definite shape and size.
All the living beings are made up of a small unit called a cell. Each cell is the structural and functional unit of the body containing protoplasm which performs all the function of the body.
The living organisms have the coordination of their different part. The part of their body depend upon each other to perform their function correctly. Eg; If there is cut in the finger of the leg than the whole leg cannot function properly.
The cyclic journey of the developing individual starting from zygote to adult stage is called life cycle. The life cycle is essential to give the continuity of life. The non-living things do not show their life cycle.
It is the process of receiving food, conversion of complex food into simple soluble form and absorption by body surface. There are 2 modes of nutrition. Autotrophic nutrition is followed by the plant and heterotrophic nutrition is followed by animals.
The biochemical process which takes place in the protoplasm of all living cells releasing energy in the presence of oxygen is called respiration. During respiration stored energy in tissues is converted into active energy which enables the organism to show their vital activities.
The isolation and elimination of cellular waste product from the body is called excretion. The waste products in the animal are collected by blood and send to the targeted organ like kidney, skin etc. In plants, there is not a well-developed excretory organ.
It is the ability of the organism to respondto the stimuli. Any change in the environment is called the stimulus and the response of the organism to the stimulus is due to irritability. The movement of the plant towards the light, contraction and expansion of pupil due to change in the intensity of light for example of sensitivity or irritability.
The permanent change in the form and structure of living organism caused by cell division is called growth. When the anabolic activities become more than catabolic activities than the size and volume of organism increase which means growth. The growth in the plant is unlimited.
Living organisms have the ability to produce new ones. There are two types of reproduction i.e. asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction takes place without fusion of male and female gametes and sexual reproduction takes place because of the fusion of male and female gametes.
All living beings have the ability to feel or have the power of sensitivity. They have the different organs for sensitivity. Animals have more developed nerve system so their sensitive organ works better than plants.
Movement is a process in which the entire body moves from one place to another. Animals move from one place to another due to locomotory organs. Amoeba moves by pseudopodium, insects by wings etc. Plants are fixed in the soil so, they cannot move but the bending of the plant toward light is also a kind of movement.
Living body can repair an injured part but non- living cannot do the so.for example if the small part of the stone is broken it cannot repair the broken end.
The process of becoming older is called ageing. When the ageing proceeds the life of organism terminates towards death. During ageing the metabolic activities slower due to deterioration of cells, tissue and organs of the body. Finally, the condition will come in which all the cells, tissues, organ of the body fail to show their function. This condition is called death.