The rapid growth of population has increased pressure on nature. It has helped to increase the destruction of forests, soil erosion, and water pollution. Realizing the importance of natural heritage, the government has established some national parks and wildlife reserves for the conservation of wildlife and natural properties. A national park of a conserved area is a dwelling place for wild creatures. Such parks also conserve the soil and vegetation. The main objective of protecting a national park is to preserve the natural environment.
Chitwan National park
The Chitwan National Park was established in 2030 BS. This is the first national park of the country. It covers 932 sq.km area. It lies in the plain area of the mid-south region of the inner Terai. This national park touches or covers parts of Chitwan, parsa and makwanpur districts of Narayani zone of central development region. There are about 30 species of big animals, more than 400 kinds of birds about 100 species of fishes and reptiles. Similarly, gharial, crocodiles, alligators, pythons and insects are also found here. This park is a habitat for the species of deer like chital, ratua, and laguna.
Bardia National Park
The Bardia national park was established in 2032 BS, which lies in Bardia district of mid-western development region. It covers some parts of the Karnali river. Various types of wild animals like tigers, leopards, antelopes, stages, spotted deer, laguna deer, barking deer, elephants etc. are found in this park. Different aquatic animals such as gharial, crocodiles, dolphin and many other species of fish are also found in this region.
Khaptad National Park
The Khaptad national park was established in 2040 BS. It lies in Bajhang, Bajura, Doti and Achham districts of Seti zone. It has 225 sq.km area. In this national park, we find a leopard, wharsu, nigalo, musk deer, red monkeys, thar, ghoral, langur and many species of wild animals. Some holy places of Hindu religion like Tribeni, Khaptad daha, Sahastraling etc. are located here. Khaptad Baba had made this national park his dwelling place, which has also helped in conserving this park.
Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area
The Makalu-Barun National Park has an area of 1500 sq.km and the Makalu Barun conservation area has an area of 830 sq.km. There are various kinds of flowers and plants in the conservation area. Hundreds of species of sungabha flowers and 48 species of wild roses and 25 species of flowering plants, out of total 30 species found in Nepal. This area is the habitat of some endangered wild animals like thar, snow leopard, black bears and ghoral. It is estimated that nearly 400 species of birds are found in this area.
Rara National Park
The national park lies in Mugu and Jumla districts of Karnali zone of the Himalayan region. It was established in 2032 BS. It covers 106 sq.km area. The biggest Rara Lake also lies in this national park which is famous in Nepal. The Chuchemara peak lies in the south and the Run Kandha and Malika Kandha peaks in the north. Various kinds of wild animals like bears, musk deer, boars, thar, and ghoral are found in this national park.
The wildlife reserves include the conservation and management of animals and their habitats. The total area for the wildlife reserve in Nepal is 979 sq.km. Wildlife reserve is a reserve area for the protection of wildlife.
Parsa wildlife Reserve
This reserve was established in the year 2040 BS. It covers an area of 499 sq.km. area and touches the borders of Chitwan, makwanpur, parsa and bara districts of the Narayani zone in the central development region. The major animals found in this wildlife reserve are tigers, elephant, leopards, stags, and bears.
The famous conservation areas of Nepal are as follows:
Annapurna Conservation Area
This conservation area was established in 2054 BS. This is situated in the north-east part of Nepal. It has an area of 1650 sq.km. This conservation area is the natural habitat of many endangered wild animal. Similarly, the various kinds of vegetations such as Himali larch, gobresalla, dhupisalla, gurans, etc. are found in this area. Among the 30 kinds of rhododendron (gurans), 24 are found here. In the same way, different kinds of wild animals like snow leopard, musk deer, himali black bears, wolfs, Nauru, ghoral etc. are inhabited in this area.Manaslu Conservation Area
This conservation area was established in 2055 BS. It is extended up to the northern part of Gorkha district. Its area is 1663 sq.km. The aim of this area is to protect flora and fauna of the mountain region. About 18.9% of the land is the land is covered with national parks and conservation area. Similarly, the concept of the buffer zone is also good attempt.
The world Conservation Union is an international non-governmental organization which was established in 1948 AD. In the beginning, it was named as the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). But now it is called the World Conservation Union with the short form of (IUCN). Its headquarters is in Gland in Switzerland. There are more than 913 members from 138 countries in the IUCN.