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There must be different types of office resources to perform work effectively and efficiently. The different types of resources are explained below:
Manpower refers to all the staff who is appointed in different positions for performing administrative, clerical, as well as technical jobs. It is also known as office personnel. Manpower is the only living resources which utilize other resources in order to perform official activities. The organization should estimate a suitable number of staff for a given period. The act of estimating the required number of staff in different positions of the organization is called “Darbandi”. It avoids the situation of over and understaffing and helps in controlling labor cost.
Materials refer to all durable and non-materials items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner. These materials help the manpower to perform official activities efficiently. These provide comfort, reduce tension, monitor, and fatigue. These also help to increase the working efficiency to the staff.
The revenue which is earned by selling and distributing goods and services on a regular basis is called sources of income. It also includes revenue earned from non-business activities. An income refers to financial benefit or revenue. It is earned against the goods sold or services rendered. Every organization requires regular sources of income. Such incomes are essential to meet regular expenses and to make a surplus. A number of incomes are essential to determine the stability, growth, competitiveness and goodwill of the organization. The main sources of income for the government are income tax, value added tax, interest tax, customs duty, excise duty, donation, etc.
Transportation means the process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place. The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation. It facilitates to distribute goods from the production place to another place inside or outside the country. It helps in widening the market and making a large volume of sales. It saves the valuable time of the office personnel. The car, bus, motorcycle, airplane, ship, etc. are the different examples of means of transportation. The means of transportation used under different modes are as follows:
The process of exchanging the information, ideas and opinions either by speaking or writing or using the symbols between individuals and departments inside or outside the organization is called communication. Communication is the act of exchanging information, ideas, opinions between two or more peoples or organization.Communication helps to direct the employees to achieve organizational goal. It bring mutual understanding between two or more parties.
Importance of communication
1. Road transportation:
The act of carrying products a people from one place to another through land routes is known as road transportation. It is cheap, convenient and relatively fast mode of transportation. It is an important mode of transportation for carrying goods, products and people especially in a landlocked mountainous country like Nepal. Cycle, motorcycle, car, bus, tractor or trucks are some of the examples of means of road transportation.
2. Rail transportation:
The act of carrying products and people from one place another through railway is known as rail transportation. It is cheaper road transportation. It is an old mode of transportation. It is more reliable as compared to road transportation. Railway transportation facility is extremely limited in Nepal.
3. Water transportation:
The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through the lake, canal, river, sea and ocean is known as water transportation. It is the cheapest and oldest mode of transportation. It is an extremely slow mode of transportation. It is used for transporting bulky products to a distant place. Water transportation facility is quite limited in Nepal. Boat, motor boat and ship, are the some examples of water transportation.
4. Air transportation:
The act of carrying products and people from one place to another place through airways is called air transportation. It is the advanced mode of transportation. It is the most expensive but the quickest mode of transportation. It is mostly used for travelling to a distant place, carrying mails and transporting valuable and lighter products. For a mountainous country like Nepal where adequate road transportation facility is not available, the air transportation is an extremely useful mode for transportation. The balloon, Helicopter, Jet are some of the examples of the examples of air transportation.
The means which are used to transport products and people from one place to another place inside or outside the country is called the means of transportation.
The process of exchanging the information, ideas and opinions either by speaking or writing or using the symbols between individuals and departments inside or outside the organization is called ______.
The process of physical movement of products and people from one place to another place is called _____.
The act of carrying products a people from one place to another through land routes is known as ______.
Ship is an example of ______.
Jet is an example of ______.
All durable and non-durable items required by the office to perform all its activities, accurate and systematic manner are called ______.
Manpower is also known as ______.
Manpower is also known as ______.
An act of updating present manpower for performing future work in the changing environment by increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of the employees is known as _____.
The manpower who involves in preparing plans and policies, implementing them into practice and controlling whole activities of the organization is called ______.