Notes on Water pollution and Soil pollution | Grade 11 > Biology > Environmental Pollution | KULLABS.COM

Water pollution and Soil pollution

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Water Pollution
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fig:Water Pollution

Water pollution

Degradation in the quality of water is called water pollution. Water covers over the 3/4th part of the Earth’s surface. It is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources. Drainage and wastage from industries, laboratory, hospitals, and homes are the main factors that cause water pollution.

Causes of water pollution

There are various causes of water pollution. Main causes of water pollution are described below:

  1. A mixture of Drain in Water: In urban areas, drainage and drinking water pipe are brought through the same route. If drainage pipe gets burst then, drinking water pipe gets contaminated with drain water, which pollutes the water.
  2. Washing and Cleaning near water resources: In rural areas, many people shares common tap where they wash their clothes and bath nearby water resources, which pollute water.
  3. Mixing of Fertilizers in Water: Farmers use different fertilizers on their farm which are carried to river by rainfall. Fertilizers get mixed with the river.
  4. Wastage from different sectors: Wastage produced by hospitals, industries, and houses are thrown in the river. Due to lack of garbage disposal water gets polluted.
  5. Mismanagement of drain: Drains are directly thrown into the water in urban areas. Sometimes people directly throw wastage in water.

Effects of water pollution

  1. Water pollution causes water-borne disease like diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera.
  2. It also brings various skin allergy if taken the bath with polluted water.
  3. Acid rain deteriorates cultural heritages.
  4. It has the negative impact on plants.
  5. Aquatic animals cannot survive in polluted water.

Prevention of water pollution

Water pollution canbe prevented by following ways:

  • Recycling activities and facilities should be formulated and implemented by all industries.
  • Provide all cities with proper drainage.
  • Efficient sewage collection and wastewater treatment facilities should be properly managed.
  • The use of pesticides should be minimized.
  • Education programs are needed to inform the people in the protection of river and use of safe water.
  • Various legislative measures should be employed to control water pollution.

Soil Pollution
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fig: Soil Pollution

Soil pollution

Land pollution is the degradation of earth's surface. Land pollution makes the quality of soil low. It directly affects the plants and indirectly to human beings. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is known as land degradation.

Causes of Soil Pollution

  1. Use of Chemical Fertilizers: Farmers use different fertilizers on their farm which may improve the quantity of the crop but degrades the quality of the crop.
  2. Use of Chemical Insecticides: Farmer use insecticide to kill harmful insects but the insects which protect the soil are also killed. Besides, insecticides also degrade the nutrients found in the crop.
  3. Disposal of non-biodegradable Garbage: People disposes of non-biodegradable waste on soil which surely makes the soil infertile.
  4. Mismanagement of wastage: Wastage produced by hospitals, industries, and houses are thrown on land. Due to lack of proper garbage disposal, land gets polluted.

Effects of Soil Pollution

  1. Land pollution kills the useful organisms like an earthworm.
  2. The soil becomes infertile and not suitable for cultivation.
  3. Agriculture production will decrease.
  4. Underground water becomes polluted.

Prevention of soil pollution

  • The use of pesticides or fertilizers should be minimized.
  • Water logging in the field should be prevented.
  • Agricultural lands should not be used as dumping places. It should be settled far away.
  • Various types of solid wastes should be recycled or converted into compost manures.
  • Animal's refuge can be used for the production of biogas to use in various domestic and industrial uses.



  • Degradation in the quality of water is called water pollution. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. 
  • Drainage and wastage from industries, laboratory, hospitals, and homes are the main factors that cause water pollution.
  • In urban areas, drainage and drinking water pipe are brought through the same route. If drainage pipe gets burst then, drinking water pipe gets contaminated with drain water, which pollutes the water.
  • Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is known as land degradation.
  • Various types of solid wastes should be recycled or converted into compost manures.
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Rajesh

Soil pollution how it created


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