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The gynoecium is a female whorl individual unit of which is carpel. Carpel is a modified leaf which bears the ovules, a simple pistil or one of the segments of the compound pistil. The pistil is the collective term for ovary, style and stigma. Gynoecium consist of three parts;
Stigma is the uppermost part which may be simple or lobed or bifid or feathery in nature. Style joins the stigma with the ovary. The ovary is basal fertile portion inside which ovules are developed.Ovary, later on, grows into fruit and ovules into seeds.
Gynoecium with single carpel is known as simple gynoecium and with two or more carpels is known as compound gynoecium which may be apocarpous with free carpels or syncarpous with fused carpels. In syncarpous gynoecium, a number of carpels equal the number of stigma or the number of styles or number of locules in the ovary or number of cluster of ovules in the ovary.
Monocarpellary: The pistil is composed of only one carpel. eg; Pea
Bicarpellary: A condition when the pistil is composed of two carpels. Eg; Mustard
Tricarpellary: A condition when the pistil is composed of three carpels.
Polycarpellary: A condition when the pistil is composed of many carpels. Eg; Rose.
An ovary is said to be superior only when its base lies above the insertion of other floral parts. Example; Mustard.
In epigynous flower, the ovary is borne below the attachment of all other floral parts and adnate to them. Example: Coriandrum
The intermediate condition between superior and inferior. Example; pea
Unilocular: Ovary with one chamber. Eg; pea
Bilocular: Two ovarian chambers. Eg; Petunia
Trilocular: Three ovarian chambers. Eg; Asphodelus
Tetralocular: Four ovarian chambers. Eg; Ocimum
Pentalocular: Five ovarian chambers. Eg; shoe flower
Multilocular: Many ovarian loculi. Eg: Althaea