Introduction to Angiosperm

Angios: Enclosed

Sperma: Seeds

Angiosperm is well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there are seeds enclosed within the fruit. They have well-differentiated root, stem, and leaves and also have well developed vascular tissue.

General characters of Angiosperm

  • Smallest Angiosperm: Wolffia (0.1 mm)
  • Tallest Angiosperm: Eucalyptus regnans (130.5m-435 ft)
  • Largest: Ficus benghalennsis
  • Angiosperm is autotrophic in nature, but there are some angiosperms which show heterotrophic nature with either parasitic or saprophytic mode of nutrition. Eg; Parasitic; Cuscuta, Saprophytic, Neottia.
  • Angiosperm shows a distinct alternation of a generation with dominating saprophytic phase.

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source:biologicalexceptions.blogspot.com

fig: Wolffia,Parasitic,Neotia

Angiosperms show three different forms and habit i.e herb, shrub, and tree.

  • Herbs are the small sized plant with soft, weak and pliable stems having less or no branches. Eg; Mustard, Bamboo etc
  • Shrubs are medium sized woody bushy plants having branches arising near the base. Eg; Rose, Marigold etc
  • Trees are large sized hardly woody plants with distinct trunk having branches arising near the apex.

On the basis of lifespan, angiosperms are of three types:

  • Annual: They complete their life within few weeks to one year.
  • Biennal: They complete their life within 2 years.
  • Perennial: They can survive for more than two years. It is of two types. Those plants which flower many times in a lifetime is polycarpic and those which flowers once in a lifetime is monocarpic.

On the basis of water requirements, angiosperms are of three types:

  • Hydrophytes: Hydron means water and phyton mean plants. So, literally, we can say the plant that hydrophytes are the plants that grow the well insufficient supply of water. Eg: Lotus
  • Mesophytes: Meson means moderate and phyton means plants. So, plants that grow well in a moderate or normal supply of water is called mesophyte. Eg: Maize
  • Xerophytes: Xerox means dry or arid. So, those plants which grow well in dry or arid habitat is Xerophytes. Eg: Cactus

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source:www.shutterstock.com

fig:lotus,Maize,Cactus

  • Angiosperm are well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there is seeds enclosed within the fruit. 
  • They have well differentiated root, stem and leaves and also have well developed vascular tissue.
  • Angiosperm are autotrophic in nature, but there are some angiosperms which show heterotrophic nature with either parasitic or saprophytic mode of nutrition.Eg; Parasitic; Cuscuta, Saprophytic; Neottia.
  • Angiosperm shows a distinct alternation of generation with dominating saprophytic phase.
  • Those plants which flower many times in a lifetime is polycarpic and those which flowers once in a lifetime is monocarpic.
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