Angiosperm is well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there are seeds enclosed within the fruit. They have well-differentiated root, stem, and leaves and also have well developed vascular tissue.
General characters of Angiosperm
- Smallest Angiosperm: Wolffia (0.1 mm)
- Tallest Angiosperm: Eucalyptus regnans (130.5m-435 ft)
- Largest: Ficus benghalennsis
- Angiosperm is autotrophic in nature, but there are some angiosperms which show heterotrophic nature with either parasitic or saprophytic mode of nutrition. Eg; Parasitic; Cuscuta, Saprophytic, Neottia.
- Angiosperm shows a distinct alternation of a generation with dominating saprophytic phase.
Angiosperms show three different forms and habit i.e herb, shrub, and tree.
- Herbs are the small sized plant with soft, weak and pliable stems having less or no branches. Eg; Mustard, Bamboo etc
- Shrubs are medium sized woody bushy plants having branches arising near the base. Eg; Rose, Marigold etc
- Trees are large sized hardly woody plants with distinct trunk having branches arising near the apex.
On the basis of lifespan, angiosperms are of three types:
- Annual: They complete their life within few weeks to one year.
- Biennal: They complete their life within 2 years.
- Perennial: They can survive for more than two years. It is of two types. Those plants which flower many times in a lifetime is polycarpic and those which flowers once in a lifetime is monocarpic.
On the basis of water requirements, angiosperms are of three types:
- Hydrophytes: Hydron means water and phyton mean plants. So, literally, we can say the plant that hydrophytes are the plants that grow the well insufficient supply of water. Eg: Lotus
- Mesophytes: Meson means moderate and phyton means plants. So, plants that grow well in a moderate or normal supply of water is called mesophyte. Eg: Maize
- Xerophytes: Xerox means dry or arid. So, those plants which grow well in dry or arid habitat is Xerophytes. Eg: Cactus