Notes on Human Evolution | Grade 11 > Biology > Evolution | KULLABS.COM

Human Evolution

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Parapithecus(Anthropoid)

They were anthropoid ancestor i.e. the common ancestor of human apes and monkey. Their fossils were discovered from Egypt. They have evolved 36 million years ago.

Dryopithecus/Proconsul

They were the hominid ancestor i.e. the common ancestor of human and apes. Their Fossil was discovered from Europe and Africa. They have evolved 24 million years ago. They had a round forehead and pointed canine teeth.

Ramapithecus/ shivapithecus

They were the oldest direct ancestors of humans, evolved 14 million years ago.Fossil discovered from Shivalik hills of India and also from the Butwal and Dang of Nepal. They were arboreal but also walked on the ground. They have smaller canine and larger molar teeth.

Australopithecus

They were the first ape-man or Human-like form, connecting link between human and apes, evolved five million years ago, fossils discovered from Africa. They were the first ancestor showed bipedal locomotion.Their cranial capacity was 500 cc.They had two species;

  • A.robustus: which became extinct
  • A. Africanus: were in direct line of human evolution.

Homohabilis(Handyman /Skilful man)

They were the first toolmakers(nutcrackers). They made various tools from stone. Their fossil discovered from East Africa. They were evolve 2 million years ago. Their cranial capacity was 700 cc. They had prognathous jaw, protecting brow ridge and narrow slopy forehead.

Homoerectus (Erect man)

They have more erect posture. They made more elaborate tools from stone and bond. They have evolved 1.7 million years ago. They also had prognathous jaw, protecting brow ridge and narrow slopy forehead. They have three subspecies:

H.erectuserectus/Java ape-man

Their fossil was discovered from Java of Indonesia. They first used fire for cooking and protection. Their cranial capacity was 900 cc.

H.erectus pekinensis/Peking man

Their fossils were discovered from peking of China. They were shorter and lighter than Java ape-man. Their cranial capacity was 900-1200cc.

H.erectus Heidelberg enosis/Heidelberg man

Their fossils were discovered from Heidelberg of Germany. They were much taller and heavier. Their cranial capacity was 1300 cc.

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man)

Their fossils discover from Neander valley of Germany. They had slightly prognathous jaw with a broad nose. Their cranial capacity was 1300-1600 cc (equal to that of modern man). They were stronger than modern man. They developed society, culture, and division of labour. They lived in a cave. They buried dead bodies with the ceremony. They were omnivorous and cannibals. They were the skilled hunter. They used an animal skin for clothing. They became extinct 3000 years ago.

Homo sapiens fossil( Cro-magnon man)

They were the immediate ancestor of modern man. Their fossils were discovered from the cro-magnon rock of France. They had the orthognathous jaw with a rounded forehead. Their cranial capacity was 1650 cc so supposed to be more intelligent than modern man. They made sculpture and color painting in the cave. They were omnivorous. They made more excellent tools like spears, bows, and arrows.

Homo sapiens sapiens(Modern man)

They have evolved 20,000 years ago and spread around Caspian and Mediterranean sea before 1000 years ago. They migrated towards different direction and develop into different races:

Caucasians: Those who migrate westward (Europe, Southeast Asia)

Mongoloid: Those who migrate eastward.(China Japan, Siberia)

Negroid: Those who move southward. (Africa)

Characters:

  • Development of brain and cranial capacity.
  • More intelligent.
  • The power of thinking and sense of civilization.
  • Erect posture and bipedal locomotion.
  • Grasping hand.
  • Shifting from hunting life to cultivating life.

Conclusion:

It may conclude that the origin and evolution of man have occurred from the ape-like ancestor.

Position of modern man in animal kingdom

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Subphylum: Vertebrata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Primates

Family: Hominidae

Genus: Homo

Species: Sapiens

subspecies: sapiens



  • The origin and evolution of man have occurred from ape like ancestor.
  • Modern man  were evolved 20,000 years ago and spread around Caspian and Mediterranean sea before 1000 years ago. 
  • Cro-magnon man  was the immediate ancestor of modern man. 
  • The fossils of Neanderthal man was discovered from Neander valley of Germany.

 

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