Note on Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria

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Cyanobacteria
source:en.wikipedia.org
Cyanobacteria
  • Species of Nostoc and Anabanahelp in nitrogen fixation.
  • Nostoc species can be used as a protein rich food.
  • Species areLyangbiacan be used in the preparation of antibiotics.
  • Cyanobacteria occurring in wall and roof of houses in rainy season causes corrosion.
  • Some species of cyanobacteria can secrete toxic chemical substances which cause poisoning in aquatic animals. Eg; Microcystis
  • Cyanobacteria performs the oxygenic photosynthesis and they are the chief producers of the biosphere.
  • If the alkaline land is made water-logged then there is the growth of the blue-green algae which enhance the fertility of the soil.
Bacteria Cyanobacteria
Heterocysts are not found. Heterocysts are usually found.
The photosynthetic pigment is bacteriochlorophyll. The photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll-a and phycobilins.
They may or may not have many flagella. They do not have flagella.
During photosynthesis, oxygen is not released as a by-product. During photosynthesis, oxygen is released as a by-product.
The cell wall is one to two layered. The cell wall is four layered.
Sexual reproduction takes place by conjugation. The conjugation has not been reported so far.

Archaebacteria
source:study.com
Archaebacteria diagram

Archaebacteria

The most primitive and ancient bacteria is known as archaebacteria. These are supposed to be the oldest of the living fossils.

Characteristic of Archaebacteria

  • They posses a unique cell wall that consists of polysaccharide and protein.
  • They lack peptidoglycan( murein).
  • The cell membrane contains branched-chain lipids, which enable them to withstand extremes of heat, high pH, an absence of oxygen and high salt concentration.

Based on ecological properties, the archaebacteria can be classified into three groups:

Thermoacidophiles

They are aerobic forms of bacteria found in hot sulphur springs. They are high temperature and acid loving cyanobacteria. Under aerobic conditions, these sulphur-dependent bacteria are called thermoacidophiles. They can reduce sulphur to H2S under anaerobic conditions.

Methanogens

These are anaerobic archaebacteria which occur in marshy places and convert the formic acid or CO2 to methane. In biogas plants, they produce the methane gas, which is used as a fuel.

Halophiles diagram
source:www.eplantscience.com
Halophiles diagram

Halophiles

These are anaerobic bacteria which occur at salt rich in soils. They prepare pigmented membrane in the presence of sunlight. This process is different from that of eukaryotic photosynthesis.

  • The most primitive and ancient bacteria is known as archaebacteria.
  • Some species of cyanobacteria can secrete toxic chemical substances which cause poisoning in aquatic animals. Eg; Microcystis
  • Cyanobacteria performs the oxygenic photosynthesis and they are the chief producers of the biosphere.
  • Halophiles are anaerobic bacteria which occur at salt rich soils.
  • Methanogens are anaerobic archaebacteria which occur in marshy places and convert the formic acid or CO2 to methane.
  • Thermoacidophiles are aerobic forms of bacteria found in hot sulphur springs.

 

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