Five Kingdom Classification

Five Kingdom Classification
source:Palacios.com
fig:Five Kingdom Classification

Five kingdom classification was proposed by scientist Robert H. Whitaker in 1969 A.D. This classification is on the basis of following principles:

  • Complexity of cell structure → Monera
  • Complexity of organism's body → Protista
  • Mode of Nutrition → Mycota, Plantae, Animalia
  • Phylogeny of organism

Monera:

  • It includes all the simple, primitive organisms which lack a well-developed nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  • They contain circular double stranded naked DNA as the nuclear body in the cytoplasm.
  • They are microscopic and made up of a prokaryotic cell.
  • They are cosmopolitan in distribution and found in all type of habitat.
  • Most of them have a rigid cell wall.
  • They have an autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • Reproduction is primarily asexual.
  • The gas vacuole is present instead of true sap filled vacuoles.

Protista:

  • They are unicellular, eukaryotic and microscopic.
  • They may be photosynthetic, holozoic and saprobic, parasitic.
  • Mostly they are aquatic and some are found in damp soil.
  • Locomotory organelles may be present or absent if present they may be pseudopodia, cilia, flagella.
  • Some Protista contains the cell wall and other don't.
  • Digestion is intracellular.
  • It occupies all the 3 niche of ecosystem i.e producer, consumer, decomposer.
  • They are the connecting link between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Reproduction is carried out by both asexual and sexual movement.

Mycota:

  • They are non-vascular, eukaryotic and multicellular except yeast. Yeast is a unicellular fungus.
  • The cell wall is made up of fungus, cellulose or chitin.
  • They are non-green organisms and have heterotrophic nutrition. They lead parasitic, saprophytic, or symbiotic mode of nutrition.
  • They reserve food materials remains in the form of glycogen and oil globules.
  • They reproduce through vegetative, asexually and sexually.
  • There is no embryo formation after fusion of male and female gamete.

Plantae:

  • All plants are eukaryotic, multicellular autotrophs and have photosynthetic pigments.
  • They all have a rigid cell wall which is made up of cellulose.
  • They store reserved food materials in the form of starch.
  • They all have two generations in their life cycle- haploid gametophytic and diploid saprophytic generations. These two generations lie alternately to each other.

Animalia:

  • They can be both unicellular and multicellular.
  • Their body is diploblastic or triploblastic.
  • They have a true or well-organized nucleus.
  • The food product is glycogen.
  • It has fast movement and shows a fast response.
  • They are heterotrophic.

Advantages of five-kingdom classification

  • Prokaryotic organisms are separated from eukaryotic organisms.
  • Unicellular eukaryotic organisms are separated from multicellular organisms.
  • Fungi are placed in mycota kingdom.
  • Lichens are kept in mycota because the fungal component is more than the algal component in their body structure.
  • Five kingdom classification is more homogeneous classification.
  • Phylogeny of the different kingdom is shown.

Drawbacks of five-kingdom classification:

  • The position of viruses is not maintained.
  • Protista kingdom is not homogeneous as euglena type of organisms is kept on it.
  • Unicellular algae eg; chalmydomonas is kept in plantae without any justification.
  • Archaebacteria are more primitive than true bacteria, but they are placed together in monera kingdom.

  • Five kingdom classification was proposed by scientist Robert H. Whitaker in 1969 A.D.
  • Monera includes all the simple, primitive organisms which lack a well-developed nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  • Protista are unicellular, eukaryotic and microscopic.
  • Mycota is non-vascular, eukaryotic and multicellular except yeast.
  • All plants are eukaryotic, multicellular autotrophs and have photosynthetic pigments.
  • Animals can be both unicellular and multicellular.
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