Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Nomenclature
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Nomenclature is the determination of the scientific name or correct name to all organisms so that they are easily distinguished. Mainly there are two types of nomenclature. They are as follow;
Common names are not based upon the characteristics and classification. They do not give information about the relationship between genus and family.The common names create three main defects.
Binomial nomenclature is a system of naming organisms in two words which is also called scientific naming. This system was first time used by scientist CarolusLinneanus in 1753. There areInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and bacteriological nomenclature to regulate this binomial system of nomenclature.
Rules of Binomial Nomenclature:
Advantages of binomial nomenclature:
Various categories used in classification are arranged in a ranking system one above another which is called taxonomy hierarchy. Taxonomy was first time used by scientist Carolus Linneanus. There are seven categories used in classification namely kingdom, phylum, division, class, order, family, genus and species. We can add super and sub-categories above and below each category.
There are seven main categories used in classification:
Kingdom is the highest taxonomic category in which all the organisms are included in the five-kingdom i.e. monera, protista, fungi, plantae and animalia.
The phylum includes the classes of different organisms that have some characteristics in common.
It is a group of similar order.
Order is a group of similar family.
Family is defined as a group of similar genera which show similar character in their floral parts.
Genus is a group of similar species which show similar characters in their morphology.
Species is a group of individuals or population which resemble one another in their essential morphological and physiological characters and they can freely interbreed to produce their own kind.
A taxon is a group of organisms having a certain distinct character from those of other groups.
Categories are the various grouping levels used in classification.