Note on Introduction to Biodiversity

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Biodiversity is defined as the variation of living forms on earth which includes plants, animals, microorganisms, contains genes and form the complex ecosystem.

  • Total number of biodiversity- 13 million
  • Identified biodiversity- 1.75 million

Biodiversity describes the diversity of life at the following three biological levels:

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source:marinebio.org
fig: Species diversity

Species diversity:

Species diversity is the component of the biodiversity which is a group of plants or animals that are similar and able to breed and produce viable offspring under natural conditions.

Genetic diversity:
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source:rdt-eoy-stuff.wikispaces.com
fig: Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of the species and recessed in all of the individuals that comprise a particular species.

Ecosystem diversity:

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source:sites.google.com
fig: Ecosystem diversity

Ecosystem diversity is the variation of habitats, community types, and abiotic environments present in a given area. Ecosystem diversity is evaluated through measures of the diversity of the components species.

Benefits of biodiversity

  • By protecting biodiversity, we are able to find a new source of food and drink.
  • A significant proportion of drugs is derived directly or indirectly from biological sources.
  • A wide range of industrial materials i.e. dyes, fibers, resins etc. are derived directly from biological resources.
  • The natural beauty provided by biodiversity inspired composers, artists, and poets.
  • Ecosystem and ecological processes play an important role in the breakdown and absorption of pollutants.
  • Biological diversity helps in the formation and maintenance of soil texture and the preservation of moisture and nutrients.
  • Natural pesticides using biodiversity are in many ways superior to their artificial chemical pesticides.
  • Biodiversity also has great importance as a direct source of income and economic development.

Scope of Biodiversity

Tourism:

The total number of species which are found on the earth surface is called biodiversity. Every species are different from each other. So, the tourist is attracted towards them are willing to know about them in detail which helps to develop tourism in the country. And the increase in tourism means the increase in country's economy.

Scientific research and investigation:

Biodiversity is also important for scientific research and investigation. With the help of biodiversity, the scientist can find out or research scientific things.

Medicine:

Every biodiversity is important in itself. From plants, we can discover various medicines used for various diseases. Medicines which are newly discovered are first observed on animals. So, we can say medicine is also one of the scopes of biodiversity.

Agricultural production:

The food product which we eat daily is obtained from the environment. With variation in these products, we get varieties of food.

Balance of ecosystem:

Biodiversity helps to maintain the ecological balance necessary for survival for not only plants and animals but also humans on earth because they depend on each other directly or indirectly for food.

Floral Diversity of Nepal

Group of organism

Nepal (Known so far)

Global

Nepal Representation (%)

Bacteria

NA

3,000 to 4,000

Lichens

465

20,000

2.3

Fungi

1,822

69,000

2.4

Algae

687

26,000 to 40,000

2.6

Bryophytes

853

16,600

5.1

Pteridophytes

534

11,300

4.7

Gymnosperms

27

529

5.1

Angiosperms

5,856

220,000

2.7

Platyhelminthes

168

12,200

1.4

Spiders

144

73,400

0.2

Insects

5,052

751,000

0.7

Butterflies and Moths

6,402,253

112,000

2.6

Fishes

182

18,150

1.0

Amphibians

77

4,184

1.84

Reptiles

118

6,300

1.87

Birds

863

9,040

9.53

Mammals

181

4,000

4.52

  • Biodiversity is defined as the variation of living forms on earth which includes plants, animals, microorganisms, contains genes and form the complex ecosystem.
  • Ecosystem diversity is the variation of habitats, community types, and abiotic environments present in a given area.
  • Biological diversity helps in the formation and maintenance of soil texture and the preservation of moisture and nutrients.
  • Biodiversity also has great importance as a direct source of income and economic development.
  • Biodiversity is also important for scientific research and investigation.
.

Very Short Questions

0%
  • Which  diversity is the component of the biodiversity in which a group of plants or animals that are similar and able to breed and produce viable offspring can be kept?

    Genetic diversity


    Ecosystem diversity


    Plant diversity


    Species diversity


  • ------ and ecological processes play an important role in the breakdown and absorption of pollutants.

    Global
    Environment
    Sociological
    Ecosystem
  • ------diversity is the level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of the species and recessed in all of the individuals that comprise a particular species.

    Genetic


    Plant


    Species


    Animal


  • Biodiversity is consistently richer in ------ region than polar regions.

    terai


    hilly


    tropical


    himalayan


  • ------ kinds of organisms have assigned scientific names.

    1 million


    1.4 million


    2.4 million


    1.8 million


  • Biological diversity helps in the formation and _________ of soil texture and the preservation of moisture.

    pollutes


    preserve


    protect


    maintainance


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Nishan

what is the meaning of viable?


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