Notes on Introduction to Plasmodium | Grade 11 > Biology > Plasmodium | KULLABS.COM

Introduction to Plasmodium

  • Note
  • Things to remember

It is an intracellular protozoan parasite. It is also a digenetic parasite i.e. it needs two hosts for completion of lifecycle one is human and the other is female anopheles mosquito. Female anopheles mosquito also acts as a vector ( an insect which transmits causative agent from one person to another). Only 4 species of Plasmodium are infective to man which causes malaria.

P.vivax → BenginTertian Malaria

P. falciparum → Malignant Tertian Malaria

P. malaria → Quartan Malaria

P. ovale → Mild Tertian Malaria

Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous species. It cause cerebral malaria and black water fever.


source:www.biologydiscussion.com trophozoit of plasmodium
source:www.biologydiscussion.com
fig:trophozoites of plasmodium

Plasmodium vivax

Classification:

kingdom: Protista

Phylum : Protozoa

Class : Sporozoa

Genus : Plasmodium

Species : Vivax

Common name : Malarial parasite


source:www.biologydiscussion.com A sporozoite of plasmodium
source:www.biologydiscussion.com
fig:A sporozoite of plasmodium

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution

  • It is an intracellular protozoan parasite.
  • It lives inside RBC and liver cell of the human host, stomach and salivary gland of mosquito host.
  • It is worldwide in distribution.
  • It is the most common species mainly found in hot tropical and temperate region of the world.

In Nepal, it is common in terai region. 10 districts of the hilly region are reported as malaria free district.

Structure of Plasmodium:

It mostly occurs in two different morphological stages:

  • Trophozoite
  • Sporozoite

Trophozoite Sporozoite
It is a fully grown feeding stage of plasmodium. It is a non-infecting stage of plasmodium.
It is formed in human RBC. It is formed in salivary glands of mosquito.
It is in rounded or amoeboid shape. It is in sickle- shaped.
Nucleus is eccentric. Nucleus is present in the centre.
The body is covered with plasmalemma. Body is covered with the pellicle.
It is non- motile. It is motile.
Food vacuole contains toxic haemozoin pigment. Food vacuole contains apical cap and secretory glands for penetration of the host cell.

Incubation period:

It is the period between initial infection of sporozoites and appearance of the first symtom. It is of 14 days in P.vivax.

Paroxysm:

The rise of malarial fever at the interval of every 48 hours is called paroxysm. Such fever is also called intermittent or relapsing fever.

Relapse:

It is the reoccurrence of malarial symptoms after the certain time period of treatment. It is caused by crypto merozoites of the previous infection as they are unaffected by anti-malarial drugs.



  •  It is a digenetic parasite i.e it needs two host for completion of lifecycle one is human and the other is female anopheles mosquito.
  • Only 4 species of Plasmodium are infective to man which causes malaria.
  • Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous species which causes cerebral malaria and black water fever.
  • In Nepal, it is common in terai region. 10 districts of hilly region are reported as malaria free district.
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Jenisha Thapa

What is black water fever?


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