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Introduction to kingdom animalia

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An animal kingdom is a group of many-celled organisms which cannot manufacture their own food.

Habit

Animals may be motile, sedentary or sessile. They may occur singly, solitary, gregarious or colonial. They show a great diversity in heterotrophic modes i.e. herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, parasite, predator, sanguivorous, coprophagous.

Habitat

Daphnia
source:www.youtube.com
fig:Daphnia in water
Aquatic:

Live in water. On the basis of distribution in water, aquatic animals are of following types:

Planktons: Daphnia

Nectons: Fishes

Benthes: Sycon

Terrestrial:

Live on land. On the basis of distribution, it is of following types:

Subterranean: Earthworm

Curssosial: Cockroach

Arboreal: Monkey

Aerial: Bird

Cellularity

Unicellular: Protozoa

Multicellular: remaining all metazoans from protozoa to chordata.

Body layer

  1. Diploblastic: Having two germ layer i.e. ectoderm and endoderm.eg. protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata.
  2. Triploblastic: Having three germ layer i.e. ectomeso, ectoderm, endoderm.eg. Platyhelminthes to Chordata.

Protozoa
source:www.abpischools.org.uk
fig:Protozoa

Level of body organisation

Protoplasmic: Protozoa

Cellular: Porifera

Tissue: Coelenterata

Organ system: Platyhelminthes to Chordata

Body symmetry

a) Asymmetrical body:

The body which cannot be divided into two equal halves from any plane is called an asymmetrical body. eg: Amoeba, Paramecium.

b) Symmetrical body:
  • The body which can be divided into two equal halves from one or more than one planes is known as a symmetrical body.Body symmetry is of following types:
  • Spherical or universal symmetry: The body which can be divided into two equal halves from more than one plane passing through the centre of the body. eg: Volvox.
  • Radial symmetry: The body can be divided into two equal halves from many radial planes passing through the central axis.eg; starfish.
  • Bilateral symmetry: The body can be divided into two equal opposite halves from only one median longitudinal plane. One-half of the body is a mirror image of another. eg; butterfly.
Diagram showing body symmetry A- Bilateral symmetry, B- Radial symmetry, C- Asymmetry.
source:www.kullabs.com
fig:Diagram showing body symmetry A- Bilateral symmetry, B-Radial symmetry, C-Asymmetry.

Coelom

The body cavity found in between body wall and gut wall is called coelom. Coelom is of following types:

  1. True coelom:The body cavity found in between body wall and the gut wall formed by splitting of the mesodermal layer is called true coelom. eg; annelids and higher animals.
  2. Pseudocoelom: Body cavity filled with muscles. eg; nematodes.
  3. Haemocoelom: Body cavity filled with blood. eg; Arthropoda and Molluscans.
  4. Acoelom: Body without any cavity. eg; Poriferan, Coelenterataand Platyhelminthes.
Different types of coelom in animals
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fig:Different types of coelom in animals

Body plan

a) Cell aggregate form: If the elementary canal is absent than such body is called cell aggregate form. eg; Sycon.

b) Blind sac form: The alimentary canal has only one opening called mouth for both ingestion and egestion. eg.Hydra.

c ) Tube form: If elementary canal has both mouth for ingestion and anus for egestion it is called tube form.It has two types:

  • Protostromous: Mouth develops earlier than the anus. eg; roundworm, earthworm, arthropods, molluscans.
  • Deuterostromous: Anus develops earlier than the mouth. eg; Echinodermata and Chordata.

Nutrition

Holozoic: Animals

Holophytic: Green plants

Saprozoic: Earthworm

Saprophytic: Fungus

Parasite: Liver fluke

Mixotrophic: Euglena

Digestion

Intracellular: Protozoa

Extracellular: All higher animals

Respiration

Anaerobic: In the absence of oxygen. eg; protozoans.

Aerobic: In the presence of oxygen.eg; higher animals.

Circulation

  1. Open type: Blood flows in a body cavity. eg; Arthropods and Molluscans.
  2. Close type: Blood flows within blood vessels. eg; Human

Excretion

Contractile vacuole: Protozoa

Flame cells: Helminthes

Malphigian tubules: Arthropods

Nephridia: Annelids

Kidney: Higher vertebrates

Reproduction

Asexual

Sexual

  • Hermaphrodite or monoecious or bisexual. eg; earthworm
  • Unisexual or Dioecious: eg; Human
  • Sexual dimorphism: Male and female individuals can be distinguished by external features. eg; human

Fertilization

External: frog

Internal: Human

Development

  1. Direct development: Without larval stage. eg; human
  2. Indirect development: With larval stage. eg; insects



  • An animal kingdom is a group of many-celled organisms which cannot manufacture their own food.
  • If elementary canal has both mouth for ingestion and anus for egestion it is called tube form.
  • If the elementary canal is absent than such body is called cell aggregate form. 
  • The body cavity found in between body wall and the gut wall formed by splitting of the mesodermal layer is called true coelom. eg; annelids and higher animals.
  • The body which can be divided into two equal halves from one or more than one planes is known as a symmetrical body.

 

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