A group of organized people with the same political aim, ideology, objective, and program are called political parties. To compete for election and get a majority in the legislative, to form the government according to the constitutional process and lead the nation according to their political principles, practices and ideology are the main objectives of political parties.
i) Democratic parties:
Democratic parties are those parties which are formed under the principal and the ideology of the democratic system. There will be two or more than two parties with their political aim, ideology, objectives and program.
ii) Mono party:
Mono party refers to the single party which rules over the country. There is no system of opening political parties and competition among the parties to take part in the election.
Criteria or conditions to be fulfilled to open a political party
The following criteria should be fulfilled to open a political party according to the interim constitution of 2063 B.S. The conditions are mentioned in part 18 and Article number 141 and 142 of the interim constitution of 2063.
The terms and conditions to register a political party in Election Commission:
The following terms and condition should be fulfilled to register a political party in Election Commission in a democratic system. The following terms and conditions should be fulfilled to open a political party according to the interim constitution of 2063 B.S. because the political parties should be registered with the Election Commission to take part in the election.
i) A collection of signature of 10000 of citizens should be submitted along with the application.
ii) A political party should apply for the registration along with the constitution, manifesto, rules, and regulations, etc.
iii) The name of the political party and emblem must not be based on any religion.
iv) The name of the political party and address of its head office should be mentioned in the application form.
v) The political party must not have any sense to discriminate on the basis of class, religion, caste, tribes, etc.
vi) The name and address of a member of each of the executive committee or the committee member similar to it must be mentioned.
vii) The details source of fund and its way of collection should be clarified in the application form.
Roles of parties to establish democracy:
Nepal could not have achieved the followings without political parties. Great roles have been played by political parties to establish democracy in Nepal. They have played a great role to unify Nepalese people. The following are the roles of political parties to bring positive changes in the country.
i) The political parties were the main source of fighting against Panchayat system, autocratic system and the direct rule of former King Gyanendra.
ii) The first political party of Nepal, Praja Parishad that was established on 20th Jestha 1993 B.S. had contributed a lot to end the Rana system in Nepal for the first time in Nepal.
iii) The political parties have played a great role to bring social, economic and political changes in Nepal. The political parties were the source of inspiration to make to make the people united to raise their voice against the autocratic system.
iv) When late king Mahendra prohibited political parties n 1st Poush 2017 BS., the political parties secretly launched various movements against the autocratic system, Panchayat system.
v) The political parties also played a great role to reinstate the dissolved parliament and introduce Loktranta on 11th Baisakh, 2063 B.S. through people's movement II.
vi) Because of sacrifice and hardship of Nepali congress and United Leftist Front, they were successful to restore multiparty democracy on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S.
Roles of Political Parties to Establish Loktranta:
i) The seven political parties and the Maoist strongly played a great role to establish democracy in Nepal.
ii) It was the achievement because of the political parties which were possible to conduct the general election for Constituent Assembly on 28th Chaitra, 2064.
iii) The political parties continuously launched the revolutionary movements against the direct rule of King Gyanendra for 19 days.
iv) The credit goes to the political parties to promulgate the interim constitution under the norms of Loktranta which was promulgated on 1st Magh 2063.
v) Because of the hardship of political parties, the Nepalese people were able to get Loktranta on 11th Baisakh 2063.
The Role to be Played by Political Parties:
Political parties are the source of inspiration to promote the democratic system, aware the people to be united bring social, political and economic changes and work for the welfare of the people and the country. So, the following are the roles to be played by political parties:
i) The political parties should work for the welfare of the people and the country forgetting their personal and the party interest.
ii) They should bind thought and opinions of the people together and work according to the people's will.
iii) The political parties should act as the bridge between citizens and government by supporting and opposing good and bad function and deed of government respectively.
iv) They should maintain peace and order in the nation by waking the people about the socio-culture conflict, discrimination, and violence among the various tribes, castes, ethnic groups etc.
v) They are the source of inspiration so that they should always make the people aware of fighting and working for the protection of national sovereignty and integrity.
vi)They should maintain the social harmony among them and should create mutual understanding.
vii)They should be cooperative and helpful to each other.
A Sample of Manifesto of Political Party
Nepal democratic party was established in 2064 B.S. under the norms and values or respecting the sacrifice and hardship of people's mass movement II. Its major aim is to promote Loktranta brought by the people. It desires to work under the norms and values of Loktranta. It is one of the registered political parties in the Election Commission. It was established hoping to be the most popular party in the eyes of people.
i) Its constitution has been prepared under the norms and values of Loktranta.
ii) It has tried its best to make the inclusive participation in its executive committees from all tribes, religions, Dalit, Madhesi, Janajati, Women etc.
iii) It has given priority to the thoughts, will, and aspiration of the people.
iv) It has tried its best to strengthen the national integrity and unity.
Commitment: If our party becomes the largest party in our country by winning the election, we will commit the following commitments respecting the will of the citizens and the needs of the country.
i)To fulfill the needs and desire of the people by respecting their will and aspirations.
ii)To draft the new constitution by the inclusive participation of the people respecting the thought and will of the citizens.
iii) To alleviate poverty, unemployment problems by giving priority to various training at the local level.
iv)To give more emphasis on infrastructural development like health, education, and transportation.
v) To ensure wider public participation and give equal opportunities to all ethnic groups, tribes, janjatis, Dalits, socially back warded communities, etc.
vi) To make efficient administration by good governance in the country. vii)To provide security forces in the border area to stop border encroachment and maintain peace and order throughout the country.
viii) To respect and honor those who had contributed a lot in different sectors to bring positive changes I the country.
ix) To end socio-economic disparities among the people.
x) To divide a country on the federal state for quick development on the basis of people's will and aspirations.
Appeal: If our party becomes the largest party in our country winning the election, we will fulfill the above commitment. We always work for the development and for uplifting our nation and will give priority to the will of people. We commit our principles and try our best to fulfill the-the commitment before you. So, it is our request to cast the vote for our party. We might be able to make our party the largest party in Nepal. Our election symbol is twinkling Diyo. So, please vote for us.
The prime ministers of Nepal after the establishment of republic in Nepal are:
Puspa Kamal Dahal 'Prachanda' 2065/04/31
Jhalanath Khanal 2067/10/20
Madhav Kumar Nepal 2066/02/11
Babu Ram Bhattarai 2068/05/11
Khil Raj Regmi 2069/12/01
I would like to suggest the leaders of their political parties who are creating obstructions by delaying the issues of public and national problems that they must be loyal and honest towards the country and the money they are enjoying each month.
Democracy is the fundamental base for development. Political parties have to make it even better. For enhancement of Democracy, the following roles should be played by the political parties.
According to the policy, programs and manifesto of the political parties, the following points have been considered.
In these days, Nepalese people do not have belief in political parties as they are more concentrated in personal benefits and interests. So they need to make effective effort to increase people's belief in the following ways:
Competitive Multiparty system refer to principle or democracy in which various political parties can take part in election and exist together working for the sake of the nation and nationality. This system is based on the democratic norm "Best Beats and the rest".
In multiparty system, there is great role of the political parties and their roles can be clarified through the following points:
We divided the class into seven groups with the name Mechi, Koshi, Bagmati, Narayani, Trishuli, Gandaki and karnali. Then we made an announcement of opening of party with the name of those rivers. Each group made their working committee. Each party drafted the party constitution as well. The following things were included in the constitution:
Though each party had working committee with different names, no party missed the above mentioned three things in their party constitution. Finally, each group registered their party's policies and the programs of their parties.
The leaders of the Nepali Congress Party and the communist Party especially Ganesh Man Singh and Man Mohan Adhikari were united to bring multi-party democracy in the country. They were struggling to restore the power of people, too. The sentence 'Democracy is a government of the people by the people for the people' was in their mind. Except in forming the government and becoming the Prime Minister, they are still united on behalf of the people. Lack of self criticism, ethereal interest of forming the government and becoming the Prime Minister, Unnecessary Chakka Jam and bandhas and criticism of the opponent party are some of the drawbacks of the leaders and parties.
If I were the chairman of a political party, I would prepare the following 'Election Manifesto' for the general election:
A political party is an association of people with the same political aims and programmes. Some of the political parties of Nepal are as follows:
Nepal communist party (Maoist)
Nepal communist party (UML)
Madhesi people's right forum
Terai Madhesi Democratic party
United communist front
Nepal peasant Workers party
National Democratic party
Political parties were banned by the government during Panchayat. Yet, some political parties carried on their activities underground. It was because of the combined efforts of political parties that multi-party parliamentary system was restored in Nepal after the mass revolution in 1990.
Similarly, seven political parties in coalition with Maoist brought out a 19 days-long people's movement II. It got success on 11 Baishakh when the house of Representative dissolved in 8th Jestha 2059 was reinstated. The declaration made on that day clarified that the sovereignty, royal power and right of government remains in people. Then, the revolutions formed a coalition government. The country is heading toward the permanent peace, progress and prosperity. Real democracy cannot exist is without political parties. The political parties shape the share views and ideologies. The strong foundation of any political system is the role of political party. Similarly, political participation is the based to measure the popularity, effectiveness and democratic nature of political system.
The multi-party comparative Loktantrik system is in practice in Nepal. The part 18 of the constitution of Nepal 2007 has the provision of political parties. The following conditions should be fulfilled to establish a political party.
After the successful completion ofPeoples' Movement II,there established new political atmosphere. Duringthe period of interim government the election of the Constituent Assembly was held and as a largest seats winner party, The Maoist led a coalition government with the support of 22 bigger and smaller political parties. Its main functions are as follows:
After the Peoples' Movement II, we have made significant political changes in our country. As an achievement, we declared our country as a Republican country in 2065 Jestha 15. We shifted to a new political atmosphere having president as a head of a state from the Monarchial system. Yet we have many challenges. A controversy can arise in the determination of rights. I would play following role to institutionalize the republican provision in our country.
It was during the suppressed age of Ranarchy that the first political party was established with the name Nepal Praja Parishad in 1993 B.S. Presence and activities of political parties symbolizes the state of prevailing democracy in a country. They play very important role in the restricting, strengthening, enrichment of the country if they run for common target honestly. At present there is innumerable and mushroomish growth in the number of political parties but the pre-historic pages reveal very glorious moments of chief political parties. They are as follows:
In the present coalition government, the two main-responsible parties are Nepal Communist Party (UML) and Nepal Congress. It has got support of 22 political parties and groups.
For its effective and praiseworthy governance, the three ideas I would like to offer to function are:
If I were a president of a political party, my role would be really responsible and the most important one. Especially, during the election the role has to be played very sensibly. It is very important for any, political party to get tested by the people at that time. So, following would be my role: