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Earth is the common habitat of all living beings. Living beings need air, water, food, shelter and many other things to survive. The environment is a surrounding which includes all living and non-living beings. 

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the total number of the existing living organisms and their variation on the earth. The biodiversity of a place indicates the bacteria, gene, living beings and ecosystem existing in per square meter of land.

Classes of Bio-Diversity

There are three different classes of biodiversity. They are:

1. Species

Species means different types of animals, vegetation, crops found in the ecosystem. They include living beings and vegetation like man, elephant, birds, wheat, potato, etc. In Nepal, 0.03% of species are available. Species denote the number of group of living beings according to their similarity.

 

2. Eco-system

The ecosystem is the biological community of interactive living beings in their natural setting. Living beings survive according to their capacity and adaptation. Biodiversity is the result of the structure of the ecosystem, too.

3. Genes

Gene is a heredity character of living beings which is found in the nucleus of a living cell. It controls physical characteristics, growth and development of living being. They change and reproduce themselves. They are passed on from one generation to another.

 Types of Bio- Diversity

There are three types of biodiversity. They are:

1. Ecosystem diversity

The diversity within the ecosystem is called ecosystem diversity. Therefore, the diversity of habitats and life are formed within the system. It also refers to the type of ecosystem found within a bio-geographical or political boundary as it may be further referred to the variety of the ecological regions- The Terai, The Mountain and The Hill ecosystems. There are 180 ecosystems in Nepal. Similarly, 75 types vegetation and 35 types of forest recorded in Nepal. In Nepal, there are all types of ecosystems except desert and ocean ecosystems found in the world.

2. Genetic diversity

Various plants and animals of the earth have some kind of variety even among themselves. This variation is due to the ‘gene’, which is found in the nucleus of the body cell. Genes carry the hereditary characters from parents to offspring. Therefore, the genes have contributed maintaining the biodiversity.

3. Species diversity

Species, as a unit, used to classify the millions of life forms the earth. Each species is distinct and different from other species. A group of individuals which can interbreed or attract to interbreed each other is known as species. Monkey and tiger are distinct species, as cows and buffaloes. Species diversity refers to the frequency and variety of species within a specific geographical area. There are 153 species of different crops, 92 species of cereals, 42 species of paddy, 26 species of wheat, 15 species of maize.There are 364 weed species, 500 species of edible plants, 200 plants species, 100 varieties of major fruits, 200 vegetables and 10 varieties of potato.

 

 

 

  • Living beings need air, water, food, shelter and many other things to survive.
  • Biodiversity is the total number of the existing living organisms and their variation on the earth.
  • Species mean different types of animal, vegetation, crops found in the ecosystem.
  • The ecosystem is the biological community of interactive living beings in their natural setting.
  • Gene is a heredity character of living beings which is found in a nucleus of a living cell.
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Very Short Questions

Wetland ecosystem is important due to following reasons:

  • The wet land region is always humid and contains the water and vapor required for the animals and plants to continue the ecosystem cycle.
  • The land is beyond the encroachment. Therefore, it cannot be degraded.
  • The constructional works do not take place here and ecosystem cannot be destroyed.

Nepal has covered only about 0.1% land of the world, but it has the great diversity of species. This diversity is found different as the ecosystem is different from Terai to the Himalayan region. Therefore, Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Nepal has almost all ecosystems except desert and ocean, which is the cause of the diversity of species. The following statistics given by biodiversity project profile proves that Nepal is rich in biodiversity:

  • Mammals=181
  • Aves= 852
  • Spiders=144
  • Butterfly=181
  • Fish=182
  • Algae and so on= 687

The interrelationship between the abiotic and biotic factors of the environment is an ecosystem. If one factor is affected, it affects another. This relationship makes the ecosystem. If an element of an ecosystem is affected or if there is loss of any element of an ecosystem, the balance of the whole system is affected that directly affects thelife of living beings. Therefore, the loss in an ecosystem is the loss of biodiversity.

Biodiversity is classified into three divisions:

  • Ecosystem Diversity
  • species Diversity
  • Genetic Diversity


Ecosystem Diversity: Ecosystem is a habitat of living being. Each organism has its own heredity character, which helps them to adapt and survive in their habitat. Nepal occupies 0.1% of theland of the earth. The climatic situation, food and habitat determine the survival of living organism. There are about 118 ecosystems in Nepal.

0%
  • People of ______ are involved in horticulture and farming.

    mountain region
    both mountain and Terai region
    hilly region
    Terai region
  • Importance of bio-diversity is ______.

    agricultural production
    all the options are correct
    plant production
    animal production
  • Tiger, Rhinoceros, Deer, Peacock, Crane, etc. are the animals and birds found in ______.

    Terai and mountain region
    mountain Region
    Terai Region
    hill Region
  • Goat, antelope, wild boar, snow leopard, danphe, etc. are the main animals found in ______.

    autonomous region
    hill Region
    mountain Region
    Terai Region
  • Gene is a heredity character of ______.

    human beings
    non-living beings
    species
    living beings
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Dinesh

Balanced development definition


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Prashamsa Baral

causes of ecosystem diversity


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What are the difference between Eco system and genetic diversity


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