The aristocratic Rana regime that began from 2nd Aswin, 1903 B.S. existed for 104 years in Nepal. The lack of public consciousness was the main reason that there were no revolts against the Rana regime. But slowly with citizens becoming more conscious, there was collective resistance all over. Founded in 1988 B.S., Prachanda Gorkha was the first revolutionary group to go against Ranas. But their activities weren’t very effective. Five people formed Nepal’s first political party in Ombahal in 20th Jestha, 1993 B.S. named “Praja Parisad Party.” The founding members were Tanka Prasad Acharya(President), Dashrath Chand(Vice-President), Ramhari Sharma(General Secretary), Dharmabhakta Mathema and Jeevraj Sharma. Four people achieved martyrdom in 1997 B.S. because of their anti-Rana propaganda.
The then King Tribhuwan also was victim of the autocratic rule. So he supported the anti-Rana activities morally as well as financially in secret. The formation of Nepali National Congress Party in 2003 B.S. and Nepal Communist Party in 2006 B.S. further supported the revolution against the Rana regime. The “Jayatu Sanskritam Andolan” started in Jestha 2004 B.S. in Sanskrit Pathshala, Teendhara by students also spread the revolutionary mentality among the general population.
Reasons for 2007 revolution
Armed Revolution and Main Events
The general assembly of Nepali Congress in 11th-12th Aswin, 2007 B.S. in Bairganiya declared armed resistance against the Rana regime. The revolution was announced on 21st Kartik, 2007 B.S. In that time, King Tribhuwan also fled to Delhi in 23rd Kartik with his family to support the revolution. The then Prime Minister Mohan Shamser crowned King Tribhuwan’s 4 year old grandson Gyanendra as the king. This led to national and international criticism of Mohan Shamser.
The political freedom faction of Nepali Congress overtook Biratnagar and surrounding areas first. Thirbam Malla and Puran Singh led the revolution in Birgunj. Thirbam Malla was killed during the protests. Dr. Kuwar Indrajeet (K.I.) Singh revolted in the wertern areas. His faction achieved a big win in Bhairahawa. BP Koirala and Subarna Shamser who led the eastern resistance captured many areas without any fighting.
The “Mukti Sena” liberated many areas from east to west and formed local governments, and announced that they wouldn’t pay taxes to the Ranas. This limited the reach of Rana regime to Kathmandu only. When the situation turned deadly, Mohan Shamser asked India to be a mediator in talks and sent his son Bijay Shamser to India as representative. The then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru acted as the mediator and the Delhi Agreement was formed between Rana regime, Nepali Congress, and King Tribhuwan on 1st Falgun, 2007 B.S. (12th February, 1951 A.D.) King Tribhuwan returned to Nepal on 4th Falgun and democracy was declared on 7th Falgun, 2007 B.S. This was the end of the 104 year long Rana regime and beginning of democratic Nepal.
Main points of the Delhi Agreement:
Dr. KI Singh was against this agreement. He didn’t want any part of the Rana regime to remain in power and wanted to banish them completely. He announced that the revolution would not stop in the western areas where he had command. He didn’t stop the revolution and disobeyed King Tribhuwan’s message to stop. He was tried for treason because of this.
The 10 member Interim Government
From the Ranas:
From Nepali Congress:
I received your letter in the first hour and read it just after lunch. I'm writing to on what I feel about the result of the revolution and royal proclamation. The freedom fighters controlled many places one after another. So Ranas become ready to come to an understanding. The struggle was postponed. Consequently, a tripartite treaty was signed between king Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress and the Ranas. According to this treaty, the Ranas rule came to an end and there would be rule of people's representatives. Similarly, there would be a council of Ministers of 10 ministries including five each from congress and Ranas. After late king Tribhuvan arrived in Kathmandu, he made a royal proclamation. He granted amnesty to all political workers and restored their property. Thus, by the combined efforts of the king and the people, democracy dawned in Nepal on Falgun 7, 2007 B.S.
Write to me as soon as you get this letter.
With best wishes,
If I am given to whole responsibility to observe Democracy day on 7th Falgun, first of all I will form a democracy day celebration committee. I will further divide invitation, report management, publicity, etc. to each of them respectively. Then with the help of my friends, I will decide the types of programs and ways to carry on them. The given pictures show late king Tribhuwan and the flag of the nations as the symbol of democracy and national unity.
Nepalese people go emancipation from 104 year old Monarchy through the royal proclamation of late king Tribhuvan. No rights were given to the people during Ranarchy. People restored their rights through this proclamation. They were assured that their representatives would form the government and that they would work for the betterment of all of them. In this way people could understand the essence of democracy after the proclamation of 2007. After the achievement of democracy various changes occurred in the society. Many schools, hospitals, campus, industries, factories were established. People could freely express their dissatisfaction. People helped in running the nations smoothly. They also participated in development works. Society got freedom from chains and suffocating environment.
Reasons to bring an end to the Rana regime are:
If a journal with special issue of 2007 revolution is published and I am assigned to reevaluate it, I would read that journal twice conscientiously. As book evaluation is the appreciation of good things criticism of bad things with reasoning, I would prepare the following bases.
Classification of journal being based on the articles mentioned.
(Binuta and Lokendra are on the way to school talking to each other)
Binuta: Did you understand yesterday's lesson on democracy? For me everything was new.
Lokendra: Come on, it is not that difficult. Our teacher made clear the system followed all over the world including our country.
Binuta: I know the system of election, choosing leaders like representative govt., upper house lower house any many others? Is that the house similar to the house that we live in? Or it is like a palace or Rana Durbar?
Lokendra: I am glad that you remember at least some words and have curiosity to learn. Democracy, is the fact the government made by the people. People like your parents, my parents and all adults cast their votes to the most capable person who becomes the MP or representative of the people. The meeting hall is called upper and lower house. They discuss together.
Binuta: Wait, Wait....., you said that our parents cast votes. Why can't we also cast votes? Don't we belong to this country?
Lokendra: No, my friend, we are still underage. We cannot decide now who is good and who is bad. Until we reach 18 years we will not be allowed to cast vote.
Binuta: What happens if we cast vote in the name of someone else?
Lokendra: That will be a crime, and a punishable act. We should never even think like that. We should do our duties properly and only then can we claim our rights.
Binuta: I was just joking. Why should we do something in the name of others? Thank you for telling me all of this.
Lokendra: Now, we have reached school. We did not realize how soon we have reached here as we have reached here as we were engaged in talking.
Binuta: Yes, indeed. And I learnt a lot from you. Thank you very much.
The tripartite ((Rana, Congress and King) agreement, signed on 15 February 1951 in Delhi reveals the following points:
The outcomes of the end of Ranarchy are as follows:
Delhi agreement was opposed by Dr. K.I Singh and some other people. Delhi agreement was signed among the king, Rana, and congress. It couldn't include all the factions. Some people still wanted the rule of Rana. Some wanted powerful King, some people were with the opinion that the agreement was done without the complete success of the revolution. Rest of the opponents wanted republic as stated in the proclamation. Therefore, the Delhi agreement was opposed.
Dr. K.I Singh was a famous freedom fighter. He was the commander of western front during the fight against the Rana. He didn't accept the announcement of king Tribhuwan and continued the revolution. After Delhi agreement, the revolution runs by Dr. K.I Singh was also suppressed.
Ganesh Man Singh is called "Iron Man" in the Nepalese political history. He is a well-respected democratic fighter who spent all the years of this for the establishment and the promotion of democracy. He becomes the commander of the "people's" movement 2046." Under his leadership movement got success and democracy was restored in Nepal. He had also contributed a lot to overthrow Rana autocratic rule in 2007 B.S as leader of Nepali Congress party.
King Tribhuwan was born from the second queen of king Prihvi Bir Bikram Shah on 17th Asar 1963 B.S. He became king at the age of 5 and was kept under the control of the Ranas. But he grew up with an aim to restore his power. It was under his guidance and support that "The Praja Parished" was formed in Nepali for the first time. The dramatic escape from the palace and taking asylum in Indian embassy was the unmemorable step of king Tribhuwan for establishment of democracy.
1997 B.S. is related to martyrdom. The conspiracy to overthrow the Ranas was revealed and Juddha Shumsher, the then prime Minister, ordered to kill four of the rebels. Shukla Raj Joshi (shastri) was hanged on a tree at Pachali, Teku on 10 Magh 1997. Dharmabhakta Mathema was hanged at Sifal, Pashupati on 12 Magh, Dashrath Chand Thakur and Ganga Lal Shrestha were shot dead earlier at bhukha kusi, Shova Bhagwati on 15 Kartik 1997.
Jestha 22, 1993 BS was the day when some veteran leaders of democratic movement of Nepal established the Nepal Praja Parisad. Prominent leaders like Tanka Prasad Acharya, Dharma Bhakta and secretly formed the Nepal Praja Parishad. The main objectives of the Praja Parisad were to overthrow the family rule of the Ranas and introduce democracy in the Kingdom of Nepal.
On this day king Tribhuwan announced democracy. Nepal becomes free from the Ranas. The introduction of democracy spread new joy, zeal and enthusiasm.
2007 was the point to end Ranarchism. When the agreement was going on Delhi, Dr. K.I. Singh and other small political parties opposed it. It couldn't cover all the people and organizations. It addressed only to the king, Nepali Congress and Ranas. This agreement also continued the leadership of Ranas. Someone people still wanted the republicanism and concluded the leadership of Ranas. Some people still wanted the republication and concluded that democracy was not on the full-fledged status. Therefore, it was opposed everywhere.
The Delhi Agreement of 2007 B.S. is a very important historical milestone event which directed the progress of Anti-Rana movement to success. After the king Tribhuvan trickily fled to Delhi with the risk of his throne in Nepal, the agreement was held in Delhi in the mediatorship of Indian Government and the presence of the king, the congress badgers and Rana representatives. It is even called the Tripartite Agreement. Following were the items of it:
When did King Tribhuvan return to Kathmandu from Delhi agreement?