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Climate varies with the place. Even within Nepal, we can find the various climate in the different region: Mountain, Hill and Terai. Terai is the hottest region of Nepal whereas mountain is the coldest region of Nepal.
Weather is sub-topic of climate. Weather keeps on changing. Sometimes we can experience heavy rainfall in a particular place but when we go little farther from the place then we find no rainfall at all. The climate is divided into tropical, temperate and tundra. They also have different sub-division.
Many factors affect climate. Among them, three factors that affect climate are as follows:
Equator is an imaginary line around the centre of the planet. It is measured with 180 imaginary lines that form circles around the Earth east-west, parallel to the Equator. It is one most important factor that affects the climate of a particular place. When the latitude increases, the distant from the sun also increases, so the temperature gradually decreases. Equator lies very near from the sun, so direct rays fall over there and it is very hot throughout the year. But poles lie far from the sun. So, slanting rays fall over there and it is very cold. So, cold winter is dominant throughout the year in this areas. No plants and animals can survive on poles particularly the South Pole.
The height measured from sea level is called altitude. At low altitude, there is a thick mass of air which can absorb sufficient amount of sun heat, so it is hot at low altitude. However, when the altitude increases, the temperature also gradually decreases. Therefore, at high altitude, there is very thin mass of air which cannot absorb sufficient amount of sun's heat. So it is cold at low altitude. The temperature decreases by 10C when the altitude increases by 160 m to 165m.
During summer, the earth lies near the sun, so perpendicular sun's rays fall over there. The water of sea or ocean gets heated and cools down slowly in comparison to land. In comparison with water, land gets heated faster and cools down fast. As the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature increases. During summer, due to direct fall of sun rays over the sea or ocean, water is evaporated that causes the highest rainfall in this season.
During winter, the earth lies a little bit far from the sun. So, slanting sun rays fall on the earth. As we know that water absorbs more sun heat than the land. So, when the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature gradually decreases as the land cools down fast. Due to less slanting rays during winter, less rainfall takes place as the evaporation takes place. Due to which days in winter are shorter than in summer and less rainfall takes place.
Latitude controls the climate by determining the slope and incidence of the sun rays. They slant extensively towards far north or far south. Slanting rays spread over and heat larger regions, but has low intensity, as on the poles. But the vertical rays cover and heat a smaller area intensively as on the equator. Here, higher the altitude, less intense is the heat. Indonesia has hotter climate than Nepal because it is near to the equator in comparison to Nepal.
The factors affecting climate are latitude, altitude, land and water distribution, distance from the sea, distance from the sun, prevailing winds and ocean currents, surface covering the land, volcanism, solar constant sunspots, wind direction and nature of mountain chains, mountain barriers.
______ is the hottest region of Nepal.
______ is the coldest region of Nepal.