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World War I was fought very violently. Machine guns, grenades, airplanes, armoured tanks, submarines and poisonous gas such as chlorine caused unbelievable casualties. Armies fought in dreadful conditions such as in the muddy trenches against the barbed wire fence. Even civilian were injured in the war. As soldiers were killed and injured, older and younger men had to be dispatched.
In 1914 with appalling loss of life, Germany attacked Belgium and France but could not capture the Polish capital of Warsaw. In 1917, Russian armies quitted the battle fields due to a revolution in their land. The german attack on the US unarmed ships caused the United States to join the Allies in 1917. Finally, the Central Powers surrendered in autumn 1918. However, World War I was officially ended by an armistice signed in France on November 11.
After the defeat of Germany in World War I, the treaty was signed between the victories allies and Germany in World War I, the treaty was signed between the victorious allies and Germany on June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles in France. No Consultation was made with Germany. According to the treaty, Germany was blamed solely for the destruction and it was made to pay for the loss. Germany lost 13% of its land and 6 million people. It has to cede the following territories to different nations/organisation as specified.
Loss of Kingdom
Restriction on Military
Consequences of World War I
1. Loss of Life
World War I was a large-scale war and first of its kind. Advanced warfare techniques used in the war which caused horrible loss of lives and properties. More than 8 million people were killed, 6 million were badly injured and 13 million people received minor injuries.
2. Loss of Property
About 36 nations were involved in the war. According to great economists, the total direct cost of war stood at about $186 billion. A huge amount of property, difficult to exactly estimate, was destroyed.
3. Destruction of Industry
Due to bombardment, thousands of factories and buildings collapsed. Serbia, Romania, Belgium, France and England were very badly affected.
4. End of Despotic Rule
The Czar rule of Russia came to an end. Similarly monarchy was exterminated in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.
5. Rise of Republic
Republican system of administration became popular in Europe. Russia, Germany, Poland, Austria, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Czechoslovakia and Ukraine became republic.
6. National Independence
The Treaty of Versailles accepted the victory of nationality. So that new nations like Czechoslovakia, Albania, Poland etc. emerged.
7. Shift of the World Power
Big empires like Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires were destroyed. America became the centre of politics, military and finance.
Labour class became important. Social reforms were introduced.International Labour Organization (ILO) was formed. Feeling of cooperation grew. There was drastically decrements of the population due to low birth rates.
9. Development of Technology
Poisonous gases and medicines were invented. Ships, planes, submarines, etc. were widely used in wars.
10. Establishment of the League of Nation
For world peace and security organization named the League of Nations was established which was the first international organization of the world. The assembly, the council and the permanent court of justice were its organs.
Role of Nepal in World War I
Nepal helped Britain in the First World War. The then Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher sent 7,500 Nepalese troops under the command of Babar Shamsher to help the British government. After that, more troops were sent led by General Padma Shamser, Tej Shamser and Keshar Shamser. It is recorded that Nepal sent 16,544 youths to fight in the war in the favor of the United Kingdom. Nepal also financially supported Britain by sending 1,000,000 pounds. Nepalese forces showed bravery and determination in the war and were far renowned as the brave Gurkhas. Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II has said, "I can send my army to fight any troop of the world but my heart shakes when I hear the name of Gorkhali soldiers." Britain, impressed by the help from Nepal, pledged to send Nepal Rs. 1,000,000 every year and made Chandra Shamser a general in the British Army. A number of brave Nepali soldiers were awarded Victoria Cross and Military Cross for their invaluable contributions.
Germany lost in the First World War and this was placed in a point where it had to face a lot of disadvantages. Some of them are:
War guilt and compensation: Germany was pressured to accept the sole responsibility for beginning the First World War. Thus, Germany was forced to pay 33,000 million US dollars to the victorious powers.
German lost her territories: According to the territorial arrangement Germany lost territories.
Germany Army was disarmed: The treaty of Versailles reduced the German's military strength.
Any six results of the First World War are as follows:
The League of Nations was formed with an objective to:
When men were engaged in war, women came forward to work in offices and factories. Women worked hard, confidently and they became conscious of their rights. Soldiers of different countries found opportunity to exchange their ideas. Nepalese soldiers too reached Europe and Africa during the war. The war changed religious and orthodoxy of Europe people and they became more secular. Factory laws were passed and trade unions were opened in many countries of the world.
The causes of the World War I are as follows:
The results of the First World War are as follows:
Unprecedented loss of life and property: This war had caused a heavy loss of human life. Out of 65 million people involved in war, ten million people lost their lives and millions were wounded and maimed for life. A unimaginable amount of property was destroyed in this war, nearly 6000 British ships and 200 German submarines were destroyed. This led to untold misery and suffering.
Germany was not allowed to keep more than_______ warships.