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Excreta disposed in free space pollutes air, water and land. Some of the problems created by excreta are described below:
Pollution of surroundings
Some people excrete in open areas whereas some in latrine. Similarly some people do not keep latrine clean. This is harmful to our health. It also makes our surroundings polluted.
Pollution of air, water and land
There is not proper latrines in rural areas as compared to urban areas. They use open space as field for defecation. It pollutes air, water and land.
Spread of diseases
Polluted environment is a favorable place for spreading germs. The agents spread through excreta to our food, cause cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid etc.
Latrine is a place where disposal of excreta is done. Latrines helps to keep our environment clean. The types of latrines differ from rural and urban areas.People use different types of latrine as convenient to them. Different types of latrines are described below:
This latrine is constructed by digging pit. Its size depends on the size of the family. It can be constructed in rural areas where there is lack of sufficient material like cement, water iron rod etc.
Site for a pit latrine should be selected carefully. The soil structure of its site should be hard. The following points should be considered while selecting its site:
Advantages and disadvantages of simple pit latrine
There are both advantages and disadvantages of simple pit latrine. They are as follows:
It is the improved pit latrines. There is a provision of drain up to the pits. This type of latrine is permanent and better than simple latrine. The site of improved pit latrine is selected following the criteria as in simple pit latrine.
Advantages of improved pit latrine
The advantages of Improved pit latrine are as follows:
There are mainly two types of latrine. They are:
Simple pit latrine: A simple pit latrine is constructed by digging a pit. Its size depends on the size of the family and their need. It can be constructed in rural areas where sufficient water and construction materials like cement, iron rod and other materials are lacking.
Improved pit latrine: This type of latrine is permanent and more hygienic than the simple pit latrine. Two pits are made in the selected site. Only one pit latrine is used until it is filled. When one is filled with excreta, another is used. Drawing the use of the second, the first becomes dry, odorless and easy for emptying.
The advantages of simple pit latrine are:
The advantages of improved latrine are:
The results of the mismanagement of latrine are:
Compost manure is prepared from organic waste materials. Generally, compost manure is prepared in rural areas because the waste materials there is mostly like cattle dung, residues of vegetable and agricultural products. Urban areas have high population. Due to high population, different types of developmental activities take place. There is large use of artificial products even as food packed by plastic. Therefore there is presence of large amount of non-biodegradable and biodegradable solid wastes. There is no place for proper disposal of these wastes. If there wastes can be used, it will gain economy and environment also will be safe. Thus, "if we can make compost manure of waste collected from urban areas, there will be an economic benefit."
The advantages of modern seal latrine are:
The points that should be considered while selecting the site for borehole latrine are: