Solid Waste Management |
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Note on Solid Waste Management

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Residues of vegetables, ash, waste paper, broken glass, plastic are some of the solid wates from oue houses, educational institution, office, industry or market area.Residues of vegetables, ash, waste paper, broken glass, plastic are some of the solid wastes from our houses, educational institution, office, industry or market area. When we throw some refuse to an open place and it is mixed with some other particles it becomes solid waste. Solid waste should be managed properly.

Classification of solid waste

Solid waste can be classified into organic and inorganic waste.

  • Organic Waste:The waste which is degradable is known as organic waste. The examples of organic waste are dust, kitchen waste, vegetable residue etc.
  • Inorganic waste:The waste such as plastic, rubber, metal etc which are non-degradable in nature is known as inorganic waste.

Principles of solid waste management

The proper management of solid waste is to collect waste from different places, store in the specific places and dispose and use them properly. The principles of solid waste management are described below:


We must try to reduce the production of waste. We should use materials like plastic, chemicals, pesticides etc in less amount.This may help in managing the waste.


The wastes which can be reuse should be used again and again. Plastic bags and other materials made up of plastics should be avoided. We can reuse bottles to keep different spices.


Some of the wastes such as paper, plastics, etc can be collected separately. The unused paper should be recycled to make new materials. Metallic materials such as broken tin, iron pots etc can be used to make new and useful materials. This helps in making environment clean.

Measures of managing solid waste

Some of the methods of managing solid wastes are described below:

Preparation of compost manure

Organic wastes are separately collected and we can manage to decompose them. Organic waste materials from domestic use and industrial use can be made as compost manure. It is the natural method in which bacteria decompose the wastes and convert them into compost.At first solid wastes are separated into degradable and non-degradable. a small pit of 3ft long and 3ft wide is used in this process. This method is very useful for Nepal.

Land filling

In this method, wastes are collected in some places and they are thrown in dumping site. If natural land fill site is available, it is easier for this process. If we dump only non-degradable waste, it can sustain for a longer period.


Materials containing carbon (such as plastic, rubber etc) cannot be burnt because it harms. These materials can be burnt in a special type of machine called incinerator.

  • The waste which is degradable is known as organic waste.
  • The waste such as plastic, rubber, metal etc which are non-degradable in nature is known as inorganic waste.
  • The principles of solid waste management are reduce, reuse and recycle.
  • Measures of managing solid waste are Preparation of compost manure, Land filling, Incineration.

Very Short Questions

Methods that can be used to control solid waste are:

  • Reduce: We must try to reduce the production of wastes; we should use minimum materials as plastics, chemicals, pesticides and insecticides. Solid waste should be reduced in its source.
  • Reuse: using the some materials time and again is called reuse. Plastics bags and other materials made of plastics should be avoided. If such materials are used, they should be used again and again.
  • Recycle: Recycling uses old waste to new products. Items must suitable for recycling is organic matter (plant and animals) which can be composted and used as fertilizers, metals, glass and paper.

Measures of managing solid waste are as follows:

  • Preparation of compost manure: It is a common practice of the preparation of compost manure using waste materials like animal dung, plant residues and gases. It is a natural process, where bacteria decomposes the wastes and convert them into compost.
  • Land filling: Waste are collected in particular area and thrown in dumping sites. This method requires a dumping site, which is very difficult to get as it should be far from residential area and water resources. Solid wastes can be used to fill the land which is called sanitary land filling.
  • Incineration: The process of disposing solid wastes by burning is called incineration. This method is more useful in those places where there is no land fill site. Wastes of hospital, pharmaceutical, chemical industry, etc. are burnt in an incineration.

Environmental pollution means some direct or indirect changes in the components of the environment that degrades and deteriorates the environment. These changes are unfavorable that occur due to extra new substances or energy into the environment.
Followings are the efforts for pollution control and environmental conservation:

  • Environmental conservation law
  • Awareness raising
  • Control of pollutants.

The main sources of solid wastes are as follows:

  • Waste materials e.g. papers, wooden boxes, bottle, etc. that are released from market area.
  • Cattle dung, fodder, grass etc. that are released from herbs.
  • Industrial residues like dust particles, unused chemical, broken materials etc.
  • Wastes released from houses like residues of vegetables, stalks, stems, broken pots, bottles etc.
  • Broken things, rubbish and other unnecessary things that are thrown at the road side.

Various ways of solid waste management are as follows:

  • Reduction of solid wastes
  • Classification
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Collection of solid waste
  • Block method
  • Community method
  • Door to door method
  • Preparation of compost
  • Aerobic method
  • Anaerobic method
  • Mechanical method

The differences between aerobic and anaerobic method are:
Aerobic method Anaerobic method
Aerobic bacteria decomposes the wastage Anaerobic bacteria decompose the wastage.
Air is passed. Air is prevented
It is less stinky. It is more stinky.
The wastes are turn within a period of four to seven days. Wastes are covered with soil when the pits are filled up.
It takes 3-4 months for composting. It takes 4-6 months for composting.

Differences between reuse and recycle are:
Reuse Recycle
Reuse is the use of the resources for the next time. Recycle is the after some scientific change.
It is cheaper than recycle. It is expensive than reuse.
The previous model is not altered. The previous model is altered.

Environmental health is developed through essential factors of quality of life such as physical, biological, social and cultural factors of environment. Environmental health helps in maintaining quality of life. Health shelter, balanced diet, pure drinking water, fresh air, etc are managed through environmental health. The reduction of the negative effects on human being and the maintenance of healthy environment are the goal of environmental pollution. It conserves and promotes socio-cultural aspects. Surrounding environment becomes clean. Thus, "healthy environment help us to be healthy."

Healthy environment requires sanitation of surroundings. The environment should be made free from waste, dirty water, cotton things. They should be managed and environment should be made clean. Environmental sanitation means cleanliness of all aspects of surroundings. It makes the surroundings clean. It helps to prevent from diseases. Healthy environment standardizes brain, behavior and efficiency of human beings. Ultimately, it helps to develop productive capacity of human. Environmental sanitation and health are inseparable aspects. We cannot live healthy life without environmental sanitation. We must consider environmental sanitation to live healthy lives. It is our duty to maintain clean environment.

Chemical fertilizers are the fertilizers that are produced from industry by using chemical substances. Urea, NPK fertilizers are the examples of chemical fertilizers. Compost is the fertilizer that is produced by using organic materials. The cattle dung, fodder, decayed plants and the organic wastes decayed by microorganisms are the examples of compost. By using chemical fertilizer, we can get more agricultural production but while using it for a long time the fertility of soil will be reduced. But by using compost, we can get healthier agriculture products and the fertility of soil will remain as well. Thus," compost is better than chemical fertilizer from the environmental point of view."

The farmers should adopt following ways while applying chemical fertilizer in the soil:

  • They should know the ways to use, causes, effects and precautions while applying chemical fertilizers in the soil.
  • Strictly follow the instructions of using chemical fertilizers.
  • The sprayer of chemical fertilizer should take self protection measures.
  • The dress used while spraying should be changed and cleaned soon.
  • Pots and cans should be kept safely.

The effects caused by the improper disposal of human excreta upon the environment and health are:

  • Environment gets polluted if excreta are disposed in open places.
  • It spreads diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hookworm, infestation, typhoid etc.
  • It deteriorates the beauty of nature.
  • Air, water and land also get polluted due to improper disposal of human excreta.

Garbage management is a challenge of environment conservation. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization, volume of garbage is ever growing. It has caused damage of environment elements like water, air, land etc. Effective programme of garbage management can reduce these effects on the environment. Garbage is first reduced at its very sources. Then it is properly classified and part can be reused and recycled. Whatever amount is left over is property disposed of or buried. This will save land, water and soil. This can also help in controlling calamities of landslide and floods. The environment elements can be kept clean fresh and unaltered. Thus garbage management programme greatly helps to conserve the environment.

  • Which of the following is degradable solid waste?

    Agro based
  • Which of the following is an example of inorganic waste?

    Vegetable residue
  • Which of the following does not fall under principle of solid waste management?

  • Which of the following is not the measure of managing solid waste?

    Prepration of solid waste
    Land filling
    Preparation of compost manure
  • Which of the following is an example of organic waste?

    Vegetable residue
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Forum Time Replies Report

What is incineration

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Aarya Ghimire

Which is the best technique for the management of solid waste ?

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how can we manage water pollution?

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