Note on Important Source of Energy: Water

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The power got naturally from coal, wood, gas, petroleum, hydroelectricity, nuclear fusion furnace, etc. is called energy. Energy is absolutely necessary for a human to survive. Energy is necessary in cooking, transport and industries and factories to run. Nepal has traditional and commercial sources as the two sources of energy. Traditional sources include firewood, agricultural residues, etc.  Commercial resources include petroleum products, coal, electricity, etc.

Even though Nepal is a landlocked country, both surface and underground water resources are abundantly available here. Most of the rivers flow through the Himalayan mountain range to the south of the nation. These rivers have water flowing throughout the year. The natural form of vertical and sloped land and enough permanent water-flow in the rivers means there is high growth potential for water power. We can decrease the dependence on petroleum products for fuel from hydro energy, and work to maintain that balance of energy conservation. Hydro-power energy use can control deforestation and electricity can be exported to foreign countries. Similarly, transport and communication develops, employment can be ensured. It also contributes to the modernization of agriculture and in environment protection.

The potential for the hydroelectricity in Nepal is estimated to be 83,000 MW. This is 2.26% of total hydroelectric energy production of the world. We can obtain 42,000 MW electricity depending on Nepal’s current economic and technical potential. Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali and their substituent rivers are considered important for the hydroelectric energy production.

S.No.

River

Estimated Potential

Practical Potential

1

Koshi

23,350 MW

10,860 MW

2

Gandaki

20,650 MW

5,270 MW

3

Karnali & Mahakali

36,000 MW

27,360 MW

4

Others

40,000 MW

880 MW

 

Total

83,000 MW

44,370 MW

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics

 

Current Hydroelectric Situation in Nepal

Nepal is one of the richest countries in terms of water resources, and yet lack of effective production of hydroelectricity has resulted in energy crisis in Nepal. Nepal produced 829MW electricity in the fiscal year 2072/73 B.S. This is merely 1% of Nepal’s production potential. Approx. 689 MW electricity is connected to the National Transmission Line, and others are being produced and consumed at the local level. The 14th Periodic Plan has the goal of producing around 2279 MW electricity.

Nepal doesn’t have a rich history of hydroelectricity projects. The first plant was Farping Hydroelectricity Project with production of 500 KW power from 1968 B.S. Although now it is spread all through the country, only 56% of population has access. Lack of investment, transportation and roads, political instability, local strikes, etc. have made development difficult. There is a lot of potential and if we can invest in it, we can be self sufficient in energy production.

  1. The power got naturally from coal, wood, gas, petroleum, hydroelectricity, nuclear fusion furnace, etc. is called energy.
  2. Nepal has traditional and commercial sources as the two sources of energy. Traditional sources include firewood, agricultural residues, etc.  Commercial resources include petroleum products, coal, electricity, etc.
  3. Even though Nepal is a landlocked country, both surface and underground water resources are abundantly available here.
  4. Rivers have water flowing throughout the year. The natural form of vertical and sloped land and enough permanent water-flow in the rivers means there is high growth potential for water power.
  5. Hydro-power energy use can control deforestation and electricity can be exported to foreign countries. It also contributes to the modernization of agriculture and in environment protection.
  6. The potential for the hydroelectricity in Nepal is estimated to be 83,000 MW. This is 2.26% of total hydroelectric energy production of the world. We can obtain 42,000 MW electricity depending on Nepal’s current economic and technical potential.
  7. Nepal produced 829MW electricity in the fiscal year 2072/73 B.S. Approx. 689 MW electricity is connected to the National Transmission Line, and others are being produced and consumed at the local level.
  8. The 14th Periodic Plan has the goal of producing around 2279 MW electricity.
  9. The first plant was Farping Hydroelectricity Project with production of 500 KW power from 1968 B.S.
  10. Only 56% of population has electricity access.
  11. Lack of investment, transportation and roads, political instability, local strikes, etc. have made development difficult.
  12. There is a lot of potential and if we can invest in it, we can be self sufficient in energy production.
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