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A particular type of vegetation grows in a particular climate. There are different types of vegetation in different parts of the world. For example, the vegetation of the equatorial climate is different from the vegetation of the tropical monsoon climate. But the same type of vegetation is found throughout the tropical monsoon region.
Although changes have occurred in the natural vegetation due to the change in climate, environmental deterioration and human activities, we can still see certain patterns of vegetation and wildlife zones protected by climate. The types of climate decide which types of wildlife resides in the area as well.
There are three main types of forests found in the world:
Tropical (Evergreen) Forest
These types of forest get dry, humid, and hot throughout the year and have rainfall of 200cm or above. Big evergreen trees with hard wood and less branches and canopy like trees can be found in these types of forest. The vegetation includes Rubber, Tick, Sal, Mahogany, Rosewood, Ebony, etc.
The wildlife includes big bodied animals like Elephants, Tiger, Bear, Rhino, etc., reptiles like Python, Crocodiles, etc., and birds like Peacock, Crane, etc.
This forest gets hot in the summer and cold in the winter, and gets rainfall of 100cm or above. The trees in this region get blooming in the summer and leaves fall off in the winter. Trees like Oak, Beech, Maple, etc. are mainly found here.
Wildlife in the form of animals like Cheetah, Monkey, Fox, etc., and birds like Crow, Swan, Sparrow, etc. reside here.
Boreal (Taiga) Forest
The trees with pointed leaves are most prominent in these forests. These forests receive an average 50cm of rainfall, and have extreme cold temperatures. The north polar regions of Canada, Norway, Russia, etc. have these types of forests. The soft conifer trees are found here and are generally known as Taiga forest. Pine, Spruce, Fir, etc. trees are the main vegetation here.
The wildlife consists of animals like Snow Leopard, Grizzly Bear, etc. and birds like Goose, etc.
The tropical monsoon climate is found between 5 degree to 30 degree latitudes in both north and south hemisphere. Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar etc. are the countries with the climate. It has hot-wet summer and cold-dry winter. Average annual temperature is 32°C. Rain bearing winds from sea to land that causes rainfall in the region. Dry wind makes it dry in winter. The deciduous forest is found there, whose trees leaves fall during winter. The evergreen forest is found partially in lowland river basin.
This climate is most suitable for agriculture. Due to enough change in season, different food and cash crops are grown there. Rice is the main agricultural product as it needs an average temperature of 30°C and 150cm rainfall. High temperature and optimum rainfall make it possible to grow crops, like-paddy, wheat, maize, tea, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, oil-seed etc.
The features of vegetation change according to change in nature of climate. Vegetation must struggle with climate or nature to survive. The successful ones survive as the fittest and the failures perish. Thus, for the sake of survival, vegetation modifies their leaves, roots, trunk, etc. to associate themselves with a particular climate. Due to prevalent, strong winds in savanna region the trees are umbrella shaped so that they are least affected by the wind. Most desert plants have thorns or thick waxy leaves which help to store water and prevent its loss due to evaporation. These plants have long roots which may go down deep into the earth to find water.
The Mediterranean vegetation has hard, small, oily and glossy leaves to avoid excessive transpiration during dry summer. Due to needle-like and cone shaped leaves snow cannot stay long on coniferous trees. Thus, they can easily survive even in place with temperature below freezing point.
Climate affects the life and activities of the people and also topography. The temperature and rainfall affects the plants which grow in a particular place and, therefore the animals are also affected as animals depend on plants for their food. The temperature, animal and plant life will then determine how many people can live in that place and in what way they can live. So, the study of climate is very important.