Terai region is situated at the altitude of 60 to 610 meters from the sea level and it expanded from east to west on the southern part of Nepal. This area covers about 17% of total land of Nepal. This region has plain land with warm and humid climate. There are 20 districts of Nepal in this region. This region can be divided into 3 sub-regions: Inner Terai, Bhabar Terai and Main Terai. Each sub-region has its own type of ecosystem.
- The main residents of mountainous region are Sherpa, Thakali, Manangi, and some other castes. And the main residents of Terai are Brahmins, Chhetri, Maithali, Rajbansi, Tharu and other casts.
- The climate is very cold and snowfall occurs during winter in mountainous Region whereas in Terai, Climate is very hot.
- People wear bakkhu, Docha, and other thick clothes in Mountainous region. But in Terai people wear shirt, Pants, Dhoti, Sari, Kurta Suruwal and other thin clothes.
- In mountainous region, house is constructed by using stones and mud with small doors and windows, but in Terai region, house are made by using cement, bamboo, wood, glass etc.
- The main occupation of mountain region is livestock farming whereas agriculture, small business and industry are taken as different occupation of the people of Terai.
Terai region has extensive forest of sal, sisau, khayar, bamboo, peopal etc. The Bhabar region has thick forest. Tigers, leopards, rhino, elephants, deer, vulture, eagle, etc. are common in this forest. Fish, crocodiles are found in rivers, lakes and ponds. The four adverse effects on ecosystem of Terai Region are:
- Forest Destruction
- Effect of infrastructure development
- Over use of chemical on farms
- Industrial pollution
- Use of forest and its peotection: The density of population is high in this region. People here depend upon the forest materials and agricultural protection. They destroy forest for cultivation and settlement. The dense forest of Terai is being destroyed gradually which brings more probability of depletion of forest in near future. The awareness programme should be conducted to preserve forest. People should also participate in the plantation and conservation programmes.
- Use of land and its conservation: Agricultural activities are more in Terai region because of fertile land. The farmers use chemical fertilizer for more and better production. The fertility of land of Terai has begun to diminish due of flood, landslide and over encroachment of human activities.The use of chemical and fertilizer should be minimized, the soil erosion of the hill should be checked and people should be made aware about the land conservation to protect the land of the Terai region.
- Livestock farming: The livestock farming such as cattle and goat for milk, meat, manure and other purposes has also been done in this region. People take cattle in forest and pasture to graze. The forest and pasture are depleting due to overgrazing. Animals should not be allowed to graze freely because they destroy the young and valuable plants. Positive attitude towards conservation of ecosystem should be developed to protect the environment.