Mountain region lies in the northern part of the country. This is the mountainous area that extends from east to west. It's altitude range from 4877 to 8848 meters above in sea level. It contains of a number of snow covered hills. The snow line is at the altitude of 5ooo meters in the east and 4ooo meters in the west. It includes about 15% of the land of the country. Its ecosystem differs with other region due to its altitude, structure of land, temperature and climate. The land and climate of this region above 4500 meters not favorable for the vegetation compared to other region due to the snowfall and coldness. Thus, the ecosystem of this region is valuable and that should be conserved for the protection of living beings.

The effects of livestock farming on the hilly regions are:

  • Farmers allow their cattle to graze in the forests. This practice destroy the young plants of the forest.
  • The grasslands are being covered into desert due to overgrazing.
The ways to minimize the effects are:
  • Cattle should be stopped to graze in the forest.
  • Overgrazing should be stopped.

People of hilly region use land and conserve it in the following ways:

  • People cultivate the land by applying terrace system.
  • They do plantation in slope land.
  • In the area, where frequently, landslide occurs and flows more water, people plant bamboos and other plants of the same family.
  • People are discouraged to cultivate in weak land and slope.
  • People are discouraged themselves in deforestation and over gazing of cattle.

The Hilly Region of Nepal is rich in religious and cultural diversity. It hosts many ethnic community like Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Tamang, Mangar etc. Majority of people follow Hinduism and Buddhism rank second. Dashain, Tihar, Janai Purnima, Maghe Sangkranti, etc. are the main festivals celebrated by the people. Along with these festivals, people celebrate some local festivals too. Temples, gumbas, pati pauwas, rivers etc. represent the religious and cultural heritage there. Religious heritage like Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Budhanilkantha, Dakshinkali, Dolakha Bhimsen, Manakamana, etc. are among the famous religious shrines of this religion.

  • The main residence of the mountain are Sherpa, Thakali, Manangi, and some other casts while the main residence of Terai region are Brahmin, Rajbamshi, Tharu, Satar etc.
  • The climate is very cold and snowfall in Hilly region where as its very hot in Terai.
  • People wear very thick clothes like Bakkhu, Docha and some other clothes in Hilly region likewise the people of Terai region use to wear saari cholo, dhoti, lungi, daura suruwal etc.
  • In Himalayan region, people construct house using Stone, mud etc. where as in Terai, people construct house by using wood, cement, bricks, bamboo, etc.
  • The main occupation of the people of the mountain region is livestock, farming, and tourist guide where as agriculture, trade, farming and industry are taken as different occupation of the people of the Terai Region.

The major problems are:

  • Over use of land
  • Rapid Population growth
  • Deforestation
  • Lack of awareness
  • Lack of effective laws
  • Rapid modernization

For minimizing the effect on the ecosystem following measures can be done :
  • Scientific use of land
  • Control in rapid population growth
  • Afforestation
  • Awareness programmes
  • Introduction of strict laws and their effective implementation
  • Planned and systematic modernization