The composition of population means the distribution of the number of the population according to characteristics such as age,sex,marital status,socio-economic status. The merits of knowing the composition of population are enlisted below:
- It helps to find out the structure of population.
- It helps to study on various demographic indicators.
- It helps for the future plan such as age composition,sex composition and so on.
- It is the main pillar of population studies.
Population composition is the main pillar of the population studies. The study of composition of population helps us to find out the structure of the population of a country. The population composition can be discussed in the following ways:
- Composition by age: The age composition of population means the composition of population of a certain age group in a certain place or region. The age of population can be classified corresponding to the age composition. In broad age group, population under fifteen is reducing over time. In 2001 their percentage is 39 only whereas it was 42 in 1991 and size of working population is increasing to 55 percentage from 52 percent and elderly population are also increasing to 6 from near about six.
- Composition by sex: If the population is classified according to sex, this is called composition of population by sex. If the population of a place is counted by male and female, the sex composition of population can be found out. In Nepal female is larger in size from previous census and sex ratio is slightly less than hundred. In latest census 49.9 percent are male and 50.1 percent are and sex ratio is 99.8%.
- Composition by occupation : Population composition by occupation denotes the involvement of number of people into various occupation. In other words, it shows what major economic activities which people are involved in. In the last census out of total Nepalese 80% are engaging in agricultural and remaining 20% in non-agricultural sector completely. Among non-agricultural sector, majority is in service followed by trade and business.
- Composition by Religion: The majority of population in Nepal is Hindu, followed by Buddhist. There are people of other religions like Muslim, Kirant, Christian, Jain, etc. Nepal was once constitutionally a Hindu Kingdom, though today it is a secular state. Hindu is prominent religion in Nepal and about 81% are Hindu followed by Buddha 11 % and Islam 4.2 % and Kirat 3.6 respectively. The other religious are small in magnitude.
- Composition by Language: Though Nepal is small in size, about 75 indigenous groups reside in Nepal. They have their own original language and dialects. Nepali language is the mother tongue for all it is spoken by fifty percent people besides this Maithili, Bhojpuri, Newari are also major languages in Nepal.