The progress made by human beings by establishing residence, housing, road, agriculture, cattle-rearing, art, education, dress, fooding, language, trade, ornament, etc. to make their life happier and prosperous is known as civilization.
The history of civilization existed on the bank of the river. This is because of the availability of fertile soil, sufficient water for drinking, irrigation, grass for the animals, etc.
Mohenjo-Daro and the Harappa are the well-planned cities. This is because Harappa was surrounded by the brick wall of 12 metres and the Mohenjo-Daro was also surrounded by the brick wall of 11 metres.
The excavation of 1920 AD told about the two important cities of Indus civilization i.e. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The civilization is supposed to have flourished between 2300 - 1750 BC. Although no written document was found by the excavation, available remains give a clear picture of a well-developed civilization.
The economic condition of the Indus valley was good. The main occupation of the people was Agriculture. People used to irrigate wheat, barley and pea. Wheat was the staple food. They also ate meat, eggs, fish and watermelon too. They used to cultivate cotton and they wore the clothes made from cotton. Both male and female wore ornaments. They used coppers, brass and silver pots. Many goods reflecting the culture of Harappa found in Mesopotamia proved that they were engaged in external trade too.
Although there were no big places found while observation and historians guess that no king had ruled over there. So, the administration was conducted by the people. The images of a bull and a man surrounded by animals were found in some places. Besides this, the images of some goddesses were found in different places. It indicates that there were a matriarchal society and the tradition of worshipping goddesses. The main sources of amusement were animal fighting and playing dice.