Reproduction is the process by which living organisms produce new individuals.

There are two types of reproduction. They are: sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
The reproduction that takes place without the fusion of male and female gametes is called asexual reproduction.
The reproduction that takes place with the fusion of male and female gametes to form zygote is called sexual reproduction.
The process in which male and female gametes fuse together to form zygote is called fertilization.

The reproduction that takes place without the fusion of male and female gametes is called asexual reproduction. Types of asexual reproduction are:

  1. Fission
  2. budding
  3. sporulation and regeneration
  4. vegetative propagation

The type of reproduction in which one individual divide itself into two or more daughter individual by some mechanism is called fission. The types of fission are:

  1. Binary fission
  2. Multiple fission

The asexual reproduction in which one organism divides into two daughter organisms is called binary fission. The asexual reproduction in which one organism divides into many daughter organisms is called multiple fission.

When a long plant body divides into various fragments because of different effects, they start to spread independent life which is called fragmentation.

When an organism is divided into two, each part can regenerate into a new individual this process is called regeneration.It is very common in animals like hydra, tapeworm, Planeria etc.

The reproduction, which generally occurs only in plants from various vegetative organs like root, stem, leaves etc. through the process of cutting, grafting, layering etc., is called vegetative propagation. E.g. through root: sweet potato, mint etc.