A lever is a simple machine which consists of a rigid bar which is free to turn about a fixed point called fulcrum. The principle of lever is, the nearer the fulcrum to the weight to be moved, the easier it is to shift, the farther from the fulcrum, the more difficult.

Long spanner provides more effort arm and produces more turning effort.

Because effort arm is increased according to the principle of lever less effort is required.

Lever is divided into three types. They are: first class lever, second class lever and third class lever.

Solution,

\begin{align*} \text {Load}\: (L) = 40N\\ \text {Load arm}\: (L. d) = 2m\\ \text {Effort arm}\: (E.d) = 4m\\ \text {Effort} (E) =?\\ \text {According to the principle of lever,} \\ \text {Load} \times \text {Load arm} &= \text {Effort} \times \text {Effort arm} \\ \text {or,}\: 40 \times 2 = E \times 4 \\ \text {or,}\: 80/4 &= E \\ \text {or,}\: E = 20N \\ \text {Hence, the effort required to lift a load is}\: 20\:N. \\\end{align*}

Solution:

\begin{align*} \text {Load}\: (L) = 600N \\\text {Load arm}\: (L. d) = 0.5\\ \text {Effort arm}\: (E. d) = 1.5 - 0.5 m= 1m \\ \text {Effort}\: (E) =?\\ \text {According to the principle of lever,} \\ \text {Load} \times \text {Load arm} &= \text {Effort} \times \text {Effort arm} \\\text {or,}\: 600 \times 0.5 &= E \times 1 \\ \text {or,}\: E &= 300N \\ \text {Hence, the effort required to lift a load is}\: 300\:N. \\ \end{align*}