King Prithivi Narayan Shah faced from geographical, political and economical problems during his unification campaign. It was not an easy task to conquer the small sates and unite them. So, there was a political problem. Similarly, there was economic problem for reforming armies. Lack of productive land and places at high altitude were geographical problems faced by Prithivi Narayan Shah.
All activities of King Prithivi Narayan Shah were directed towards the unification of Nepal. Art of rule, strategy, foreign policy, diplomacy were all directed towards the unification. He had become bold and had dreamt of great Nepal as soon as he made an attempt to conquer Nuwakot. He wanted to attain his dreams by unifying small states. He was also determined to give security and happy life to people. He visited many places, worked hard and showed his leadership towards local villagers so that they would support his unification campaign. He did not divide the nation as personal property after unification. Besides, he merged Gorkha into Nepal. Therefore, we can say that the activities of King Prithivi Narayan Shah were directed towards the unification.
Prithivi Narayan Shah had negotiated a treaty with Lamjung as the representative of his father before he became King. After he became King, he tried to maintain friendly relations with all the baise and chaubise states. He had made a friendly relation with Hari shah (The King of Jajarkot). He married his daughter Vilash Kumari to Rana Bhim Shah (The King of Salyan) to promote good relation with Salyan.So, he used political and relational approach to improve the bilateral relation with the Baise Rajya.
Bhaktapur was a friendly state of Gorkha from the time of King Narabhupal Shah. In 1741 AD Prithivi Narayan shah visited Bhaktapur to strengthen bilateral relation between Gorkha and Bhaktapur and to study the factual situation of the valley as well. At the same time, Prithivi Narayan Shah had made Bir Nara Singh Malla, the son of King Ranjit Malla of Bhaktapur his friend to strengthen the family ties. He promised to hand over Sindhupalchowk and Palanchowk, under the reign of Kantipur to Bhaktapur and succeeded in capturing it.
Prithivi Narayan Shah needed an internal view of the Kathmandu valley before he could plan his attack. For that purpose he has to make contact with any one of the states inside the valley. The best choice was Bhaktapur as prince of Bhaktapur was same age as Prithivi Narayan Shah and had met before. So it was easier to make friendly relation with Bhaktapur.
The similarities and difference between the treaties are as follows:
He wanted to have secret information from both countries.
|Prithivi Narayan shah wanted to have contradiction between Kantipur and Bhaktapur.||He wanted to conspire Bhaktapur against Kantipur.|
|From currency circulation, he wanted to gain income from both countries.||The treaty with Bhaktapur was related with political aspect but Kantipur was related to economic aspects.|
|He wanted Bhaktapur to be nearer to him than Kantipur.|
Kathmandu valley is surrounded by high hills. Prithivi Narayan Shah enforced economic blockage controlling the passage around it. The commercial goods were prevented to flow into the valley. All the trade routes joining Tibet, India and Chaubise states were controlled.Smugglers were severely punished. After the conquest of Makawanpur, economic blockage became more effective. People of Valley faced serious hardship due to lack of raw materials, clothes, and salt, cotton and edible things. People wanted their hardship to be eliminated but the condition was deteriorating day by day. Jaya Prakash Malla had no money even to pay his shoulders. He had taken the wealth of Pashupati and golden gajur of Jaya Bageshwari for this purpose.
Prithvi Narayan Shah had conquered Nuwakot in 1801 BS. He conquered kirtipur in the third attempt with the view to conquer valley. At the same time he conquered Naldum, Mahadevpokhari, Sankhu, etc. After the conquest of Nuwakot and Makawanpur, Prithivi Narayan Shah blocked the valley economically. It weakened the position of the valley and Prithivi Narayan Shah became able to conquer Kantipur and Patan in 1925 BS. And Bhaktapur in 1826.
King Prithivi Narayan Shah called Nepal a garden because it consists of people of various casts as a garden consists various species of flowers. These casts tidily increase the beauty of the country as flowers increase the beauty of place. They jointly develop the country and bring about changes in the country.
- The kingdom of Makawanpur was considered as fertile land.
- Economic blockage over Kathmandu valley could be enforced effectively only after the conquest of Makawanpur.
- He wanted to take revenge upon the royal family of Makawanpur kingdom.
After the disastrous defeat, King Prithivi Narayan Shah sent his troops to Chaudandi and Bijayapur under the command of Abhiman Singh Basnyat, Ram Krishna Kunwan, and Parath Bahandari. They annexed Chaudandi in 1830 BS so King Karna Sen led to the neighboring principality of Bijayapur. The Nepalese troops attacked Bijaypur only the next year (1831) so both Karna Sen and Buddhi Karna Rai if Bijayapur fled to Sikkim. Abhiman Singh requested the Sikkamese King to return them to Nepal. But they had already fled from there. So the Sikkimise King returned Illam to Nepal. Hence, the Gorkha troops compensated for their defeat in the west by their victory in the east.