The Second World War took place from 1939 to 1945 AD. Almost all the countries in the world had participated in this war. After the war whole world was divided into two huge hostiles. One was led by Britain and another by Russia. Communism and capitalism were the fundamental economic policies.
Due to Second World War, different political and economic effects were seen in the world circumference. Some of them are mentioned below:
- The Second World War destroyed huge amount of properties in the war. It was estimated that 1000 billion dollar was spend. Entire economy of the world concentrated on war.
- Huge and destructive atomic powers were developed and bases of powers transformed from weapons to atom.
- The United Nations got proper position in the world and has been more effective to control war in large scale.
- More stable politics were seen in most of the world which ensured development of different countries.
Nepalese soldiers had fought in the war on behalf of the British. They got a chance to exhibit their boldness, bravery and gallantry. They had earned a glorious reputation as brave Gorkhas. By virtue of their bravery many of the Gorkhali soldiers were awarded with the decoration of Victoria Cross. They are Capt. Gaje Ghale, Capt. Ganju Lama, Capt. Agam Singh Rai, Capt. Ram Bahadur Limbu, SubedarLal Bahadur Thapa, Rifleman Laxman Gurung, Tul Bahadur Pun, Netra bahadur Thapa, Sher Bahadur Thapa, and Bhanu bahadur Gurung. The British has paid an amount of 33.3 million rupees to Nepal Government as a mark of her gratitude to Nepal.
Not only this, she also promised to continue the payment of 1 million rupees every year since the second world war.
The Asian war began in 1937 after Japan attacked China. This time Japan sided with the Axis rather than the Allies. It wanted to control china fully. Axis seized the France on 17 May 1940. Now it was in fierce battle with the Britain. After US cut off its oil and raw iron in 1941, Japan attacked US naval power at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 under the leadership of the Navy Admirals Yamastisi. On its victorious path it was nonstop, japan extended its territory in eastern Asia and seized all Southeast Asia, richest in oil, food and metals.
The war that started on 1st September 1939 A.D. and spread worldwide and lasted till 1945 A.D. causing huge destruction of lives and properties is known as Second World War. The following are the major causes of the war:
1. Treaty of Versailles
At the end of the first world war, a treaty was signed between the Allies group and Germany where Germany was badly humiliated. Germany had to accept the treaty with a knife in her throat. There was huge restriction in terms of military, weapons manufacturing and also had to pay 660 million pounds to Allies as war compensation. Such humiliation was not tolerable by the German people. This feeling of revenge led to the support of Adolf Hitler, who threatened world peace by violating the treaty that opened the door for second world war.
2. Rise of Hitler and Militarism
After World War I, German people suffered from several problems like unemployment. But Hitler established an arm industry which became source of employment for many German people. Then, he violated the treaty by not paying war compensation. The hardship caused due to World War I was not tolerable by German people and it led to increase in support to Hitler and his National Socialist Party (Nazi). When he got majority in German parliament and formed the government, he suspended the constitution and started to rule as a dictator. He captured Rhineland, increased his army and started to annex the German territories lost by Germany during first world war. Further, Hitler annexed Czechoslovakia and attacked Austria. Such aggressive activities became the cause of Second World War.
3.Rise of communism
After the October Revolution of Russia in 1917 AD, the influence of communism spread widely around the world. To stop the influence in Europe, Japan and Germany had signed a treaty in 1936 AD called Anti Comintern Pact. In 1937 AD, Italy joined the treaty and was called Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis. After its formation, the countries started colonialism. America, France and Britain did not pay attention thinking that it would stop the spread of communism. But the Axis started to fulfill their personal interest which caused disturbance in world peace.
4. Economic crisis and rise of dictators
During first world war, a large number of youths were killed. The scarcity of manpower was caused. Lack of production in factories caused hunger and starvation led to economic crisis worldwide. In such transitional period, the dictators won the heart of people by their attractive slogans. So, Hitler came in to the power in Germany, General Franco in Spain and Mussolini in Italy. Then the treaty was violated by all and no one could stop or check them.
The destructive and devastating war that took place from 1st September 1939 to 12th September 1945 is known as Second World War. There were great changes that occurred after the war. Some of them are:
1. Division of world into two blocks and beginning of the cold war:
The Second World War resulted the division of world into two blocks: capitalist and communist. The capitalist block was led by the USA whereas the communist block was led by Russia. They started criticizing each other and resulted the cold war. During the period of cold war, nuclear weapons were made which can cause heavy destruction in a very short time.
2. The Marshall Plan:
After the Second world war, when Truman's declaration was done, George Marshall, the US foreign minister made a plan to support war victim countries. This plan is known as Marshall Plan as it was planned by George Marshall. About 12.5 billion dollars was spent by USA to reconstruct the European countries destroyed from the Second World War. More than 17 countries were reconstructed in terms of food stuff, agriculture, transportation, etc.
3. The Molotov Plan (COMECON):
After the Second World War, the USSR had established the Council Of Mutual Assistance to provide the economic assistance to the European countries in 1949. This plan was proposed by Molotov, the foreign minister of USSR. The main objective of this plan was to support the European countries and to develop their trade and commerce.
4. Establishment of UNO:
After one month of the end of the war, United Nations was established on 24th October 1945. The League of Nations was established to prevent the world from war but it was unsuccessful. So, 4 years after the Atlantic Charter was signed by Franklin D Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, UN was established. The main objective of this organization is to maintain world peace and prevent the world from wars and terrible destruction.
Advantages for Nepal from the Second World War were as follows:
- Nepal became famous in the world as the country of brave people.
- Those Nepalese soldiers who had participated in this war could get opportunity to see the development in the world and when they returned to Nepal they became political aware. They played important role to end the Rana rule by providing training to people's liberation army to fight against the Rana rule which helped to end the Rana rule from Nepal.
- Some of the Nepalese were awarded the supreme medal of Britain Victoria Cross. The British government paid 33.3 million rupees to Nepal as a mark of gratitude and also promised for the payment of one million rupees every year to Nepal.
- Anglo-Nepal relation became very close.
- It was the profitless war for Nepal. Nepal had no bad relation or rivalry with any countries of Axis power Nepal had fought with them.
- 7544 Nepalese soldiers were injured and many of them became handicapped.
- It was loss of active human resources of the country.
- There was no any national interest for the involvement of Nepal in this war. It was selfish interest of Rana ruler.