The existence of the natural environment without any negative impacts on them is called environmental balance. The control of rapid growth of the population helps to sustain environmental balance.
The basic measures of environmental conservation are given below:
- Public awareness
- Tree plantation
- Conservation of forest
- Environmental sanitation
- Publicity campaign
- Maintenance and promotion of cultural heritage.
Maintenance and promotion of cultural heritage: It is a matter of great pride our country is rich in cultural heritage. It is essential to preserve and promote them. Various attempts have been made to conserve and promote these heritages at different times. They have also been the centre of people's religious faith and belief. But due to heavy flow of tourists, communications contacts and modernization, people's need and desires have incessantly increased. Therefore awareness and people's participation in promotion and maintenance of cultural heritage is necessary.
Public participation is very crucial. Unless the local people are made aware that they are the real owners of the natural resources, the effort made by a few conservationists along will not be adequate. As there is a low literacy in our country, the degree of conservation regulating the conservation in our society is very low. Thus, education should be made reachable to each and every individual. Education enables people to distinguish between favourabe and unfavourable activities to the environment. Both formal and informal education processes related to environment conservation should be done. Besides programmes like seminars, debates, workshops, trainings, public notices etc. should be conducted so as to arouse environmental awareness.
House, market area, industry, settlement area, etc. are the sources of solid wastes. Proper management of solid wastes helps to keep the surrounding healthy. Local level authorities like municipalities, VDC, etc. have been conducting various programmes for themanagement of solid wastes. Construction of toilets in every house and management of enough public toilet also helps to keep the environment healthy.
Soil conservation is an important work of environmental conservation. Control of landslides, flood, soil erosion helps to protect the land. Reforestation, tree plantation, protection of pasture land help to conserve the soil. Terrace farming on a slope land, use of compost fertilizer and minimizing the use of chemicals also helps to protect the soil. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture, etc. are conducting various programmes to protect the soil.
Industries and vehicles emit the smoke, dust and harmful gases that pollute the environment. Chemical fertilizer and chemical poisons like insecticides, herbicides, pesticides, etc. also pollute the environment. Pollution must be controlled to keep the environment healthy. The government of Nepal is making effort to control the pollution.