Wetland ecosystem is important due to following reasons:

  • The wet land region is always humid and contains the water and vapor required for the animals and plants to continue the ecosystem cycle.
  • The land is beyond the encroachment. Therefore, it cannot be degraded.
  • The constructional works do not take place here and ecosystem cannot be destroyed.

Nepal has covered only about 0.1% land of the world, but it has the great diversity of species. This diversity is found different as the ecosystem is different from Terai to the Himalayan region. Therefore, Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Nepal has almost all ecosystems except desert and ocean, which is the cause of the diversity of species. The following statistics given by biodiversity project profile proves that Nepal is rich in biodiversity:

  • Mammals=181
  • Aves= 852
  • Spiders=144
  • Butterfly=181
  • Fish=182
  • Algae and so on= 687

The interrelationship between the abiotic and biotic factors of the environment is an ecosystem. If one factor is affected, it affects another. This relationship makes the ecosystem. If an element of an ecosystem is affected or if there is loss of any element of an ecosystem, the balance of the whole system is affected that directly affects thelife of living beings. Therefore, the loss in an ecosystem is the loss of biodiversity.

Biodiversity is classified into three divisions:

  • Ecosystem Diversity
  • species Diversity
  • Genetic Diversity


Ecosystem Diversity: Ecosystem is a habitat of living being. Each organism has its own heredity character, which helps them to adapt and survive in their habitat. Nepal occupies 0.1% of theland of the earth. The climatic situation, food and habitat determine the survival of living organism. There are about 118 ecosystems in Nepal.