Industrial revolution commenced from Britain because Britain was favorable for it for the following reasons:
- During the scientific revolution many scientific innovation had been made in Britain.
- British overseas colonies provided both raw materials as well as markets for industries.
- Britain had large unemployment workforce.
- There was political stability and encouraging industrial policy .
- People of Britain were more receptive to change.
James Hargreaves' spinning Jenny , James watt's steam engine, Stephenson's Railway Engine and Graham Bell's Telephone can be taken as the most important among the innovation listed in the table in the lesson.
Division of labour is a practice of factory production in which a certain person does only a certain piece of a job. It is widely practiced because of its advantages like the once below:
- Work is fast and efficient
- Production is very high and cost is low.
- Quality of goods improves as one specializes in a particular piece of job better.
- It provides jobs for more people because a particular worker does a particular piece of work.
Industrial Revolution spread outside of Britain in several ways. The innovators moved out for better opportunities. Sometimes technologies were purchased, states provided funding to the new applications. Traders and merchants traveling help other places to know about the revolution. People from different parts of the world traveled to Britain and got to know about the technological advancements.
Industrialization revolution left several positive effect on human life. Every field was mechanized. Mass production led to the lower market price. Per capita income rose due to rise in jobs. They could use unimagined facilities. Life became comfortable. Resources could be used optimally. The potential of human beings was being realized. It seemed that human being was conquering the nature. Ordinary people become politically educated.
It is true that industrialization polarized societies into rich and poor (bourgeoisie and proletariat). The mass of the working class were doing hard labour while a few people who owned the means of production were rich. In other words the industrial workers were alienated from products they made. The economic growth could have no advantage in their life at all though they worked very hard. In a real sense, it benefited the rich. So, industrialization created a gulf between the rich and the poor so general dissatisfaction in the working class.
As interpreted by Charles Dickens, industrialization spoiled the nature and human conditions. It caused over use of the resources and environmental pollution. There was too much of smoke, sewage, harsh sound etc. Human being had to run like a machine. His interest wasn't counted. Their life was all monotonous; having to do the same thing every day in the same time schedule.