The tropical monsoon climate is found between 5 degree to 30 degree latitudes in both north and south hemisphere. Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar etc. are the countries with the climate. It has hot-wet summer and cold-dry winter. Average annual temperature is 32°C. Rain bearing winds from sea to land that causes rainfall in the region. Dry wind makes it dry in winter. The deciduous forest is found there, whose trees leaves fall during winter. The evergreen forest is found partially in lowland river basin.
This climate is most suitable for agriculture. Due to enough change in season, different food and cash crops are grown there. Rice is the main agricultural product as it needs an average temperature of 30°C and 150cm rainfall. High temperature and optimum rainfall make it possible to grow crops, like-paddy, wheat, maize, tea, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, oil-seed etc.
The features of vegetation change according to change in nature of climate. Vegetation must struggle with climate or nature to survive. The successful ones survive as the fittest and the failures perish. Thus, for the sake of survival, vegetation modifies their leaves, roots, trunk, etc. to associate themselves with a particular climate. Due to prevalent, strong winds in savanna region the trees are umbrella shaped so that they are least affected by the wind. Most desert plants have thorns or thick waxy leaves which help to store water and prevent its loss due to evaporation. These plants have long roots which may go down deep into the earth to find water.
The Mediterranean vegetation has hard, small, oily and glossy leaves to avoid excessive transpiration during dry summer. Due to needle-like and cone shaped leaves snow cannot stay long on coniferous trees. Thus, they can easily survive even in place with temperature below freezing point.
Climate affects the life and activities of the people and also topography. The temperature and rainfall affects the plants which grow in a particular place and, therefore the animals are also affected as animals depend on plants for their food. The temperature, animal and plant life will then determine how many people can live in that place and in what way they can live. So, the study of climate is very important.