Ways of data organization and summarization:


Data editing and coding

There are different steps to be followed in the organisation of the data Editing also needs that data are relevant and appropriate and errors are modified.At that time editing of data is necessary to step.There are two types of data regarding the stages at which editing should be done.Data coding is the process of assigning or other symbols to answers so that respondents can be put into a limited number of categories or classes .


Thus, from above fact tabulation is the process of summarising raw data and displaying the data in the compact form I,e in the form of statistical tables) for broader sense can be understood as an orderly arrangement of data in column and rows.This process can be done by hand or by using the mechanical or electronic devices.Data cleaning is the process of checking the data for consistency and treatment for the missing value

Concentration and important measure of central tendency

Concentration is an important tool in data analysis. In this process after the collection of data , the next step is to analyse it.The mode is derived from France word which means fashion. The mode is particularly used usefully in the study of population size.Mean divides the data set- into two equal parts. In this case, when the dataset has outlined, mean becomes flowed as a representative of the data-set. It is used as a measure of central tendency.


There are two methods of statistical analysis in research which is based on the nature of curve and distribution.Skewness is the measure of description statistical which is used to measure the shape of the curve drawn from the frequency distribution to measure the direction of variation. It is the lack of symmetry. Based on this observation there are two types of Skewness.The absolute measures of skewness are not widely used because they are expressed in terms of the original unit of data. The relative measure of skewness is known as the coefficient and used more frequently.

Kurtosis and its types

The term kurtosis is defined as that concept which helps in studying the peakedness of the distribution .The kurtosis of distribution is classified into three kinds Karl persons also suggested the following coefficient of Kurtosis based on Moments. This coefficient are also known as moment coefficient of kurtosis.This is the most important method or observation which are quite different to other observation in the data set. Although all the statistical technique can be employed when the data set has an outline, their interpretations may be misleading.

Standard error and calculation of standard error of different statistics

It is defined as the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the statistic is called the standard error of the statistic.Hence, smaller the value of the standard error, greater the uniformity of sampling distribution and hence, greater the reliability of the estimate. Standard error plays an important role in statistical hypothesis testing and interval. In particular, if it is assumed that the two populations proportions P1 and P2 are equal, say P1=P2=P then,

Estimation, Point estimation and Interval estimation

Estimation is defined as the statistical method of estimating the population parameter from the sample observation drawn from the population with the desired degree of precision.The procedure of estimating an unknown parameter from a single value is known as point estimation. It provides an exact value of the unknown parameter to be estimated under investigation. This process of estimating an unknown population from a range of values is known as interval estimating. In point estimation, we give a range value while in interval estimation we give an interval to estimate a parameter.