This lesson deals with various topics related to organic chemistry which includes their definitions, sources, functional group, homologous series, classification, naming (according to IUPAC as well as the common system), orbital concepts of bonding during their reactions, different types of isomerism and much more. This lesson furthermore discusses the vital force theory and its limitation.
As the organic compounds were believed to be obtained from living organisms (plants and animals), a Swedish chemist Berzelius in 1815 proposed that organic compounds could not be prepared in the laboratory and could be only produced by some mysterious force existing in the living organism, which forced was termed as 'Vital Force' (which comes from a latin word, 'vita' means 'life'), and this theory is known as vital force theory. This theory later failed. Organic compounds are hydrocarbon and their derivatives.
Organic compounds are mostly composed up of the elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, and rarely phosphorous. Out of these elements, C and H are generally found in organic compounds. Elements other than H and C present in the organic compound is referred as foreign elements. They can be detected by various ways.
The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. They are of various type according to their structure. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. Those hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other with a single covalent bond (-C-C-) are called saturated hydrocarbons.
Almost all the substances that we come across in our daily life are chemical substances. Example: food like carbohydrates, fat, vitamins etc. things like steel, wood, glass, gold etc. In 1828, a German scientist named Fredrich Wohler synthesise urea from Ammonium cyanate. Urea was previously extracted from the urine of animals which is prepared in the kidney of a living animal. Fredrich Wohler was successful in preparing same organic compound from an inorganic source.
A functional group is defined as an atom or group of atoms linked with carbon which determines characteristic properties of the organic compounds. When organic compounds containing same functional group are arranged in series on the basis of their increasing molecular weight, having the difference of -CH2 (methylene group) in between two consecutive compounds, such series is called homologous series.
The systematic process of assigning an accurate name to a particular organic compound on the basis of scientific rules is known as nomenclature (naming of an organic compound). According to IUPAC nomenclature, the name of an organic compound consists of a prefix, word root, and suffix.
The naming of various hydrocarbons according to the IUPAC rule is discussed in the lesson above.
The nomenclature of compounds containing single functional group can be done as shown in the lesson above.