Application of Biology

Notes

Introduction To Biotechnology

Simply this note provide enough information about biotechnology and its application.Biotechnology refers for the technology which utilized the biological living component to achieve better result.It talks about plant tissue culture,protoplast culture,gene transfer,etc.It also mention about its application in different field such agriculture,medical science,industrial sector,etc.Biotechnology is use for the production of the antibodies.Simply antibodies are the protein molecules which are synthesized by B and T lymphocytes inside the body to develop an immune system.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics are the substance produced by the different microorganism such as bacteria and fungi which can destroy the microorganism.Alexander Flemming was the first person to discover the antibiotics in the history.Antibiotics have many application in the field of medical science as well agricultural science.Antibiotics treat the diseases but has side effects.

Plant Tissue Culture

Simply all the parts plant has the ability to grow in new plant.Thus ability is called totiptency. Plant tissue culture is the technique to grow new plant with help of its tissues or other different parts. There are several types of tissue culture.It required a suitable medium to grow. Different component should be added in the media according to their need.

Plant Tissue Culture

Plant tissue culture is the art of science to grow new plant with the help of different parts of plants.Generally reproduction in plants take place by two means,either by vegetative means or by apomixis ( seed that develop without meiosis and fertilization). Vegetative reproduction is the natural process which produce genetically identical plants.Roots are absent in the culture formed by adventitious and axillary shoot.

Concept of Breeding Techniques

Breeding is the branch of biology which deals with the production of improved and new crop varieties, which are superior to exisiting varieties with several charactceristics.It is the process which deals with the artificial crossing of to genetically different plant for producing new varieties.Plant breeding is the branch of biology that deals with improvement of heredity characters of crops and production of new crops with better and varieties of characters.

Concept of Breeding Technique

Plant breeding is the branch of biology that deals with improvement of heredity characters of crops and production of new crops with better and varieties of characters.Mutations are defined as the sudden heritable variation in plants which is occur due to the arrangement of genes, change in size and structure of chromosome, change in number of chromosome and change in the body.The population growth rate of Nepal is 2.2-2.6% per but the growth rate of food grain production is very low, it is about 1.2% annually Breeding is the branch of biology which deals with the production of improved and new crop varieties, which are superior to existing varieties with several charactceristics.Mutations are defined as the sudden heritable variation in plants which is occur due to the arrangement of genes, change in size and structure of chromosome, change in number of chromosome and change in the body.Inbreeding is the process in which mating is done among the closely related individuals

Green Manures

Chemical fertilizer defined as the type of fertilizer which contain required minerals nutrients that can be utilized by plant directly for their growth. Manure is defined as the organic matters which are biodegradable and mixed with the soil. The major use of VAM is to supply the inorganic nutrients and absorption of water.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering is the process of adding, replacing or removing genetic units for the better, permanent and heritable changes in different plants and animals. The joined hybrid molecule, recombinant DNA, consist of two type of DNA arranged in one another in circular structured DNA. Insulin is the protein hormone which helps to control the diabetes.