The study of the earth’s geology related to the environmental science is known as environmental geology. The environmental geology is an applied science which is concerned with the practical application of the geology in solving the environmental problems arising time and again. The main cause for degrading the environment today is human. Human is only responsible for degrading the environment by all anthropogenic means.
The use of water includes agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and the environmental activities and has covered the third part of the earth. The water in the river, lake, wetland, fall is known as surface water. The surface water is naturally filled up through precipitation and naturally lost through the discharge to the oceans, evaporation, and the subsurface seepage.
The earth science is the science that tries to understand the earth, its components and its neighbours in the space. It was developed in the 18th century when there is the need of the practical knowledge about the rocks and the minerals in the mining industry when the developed countries were running in the pathway of development.
The mountain formation refers to the geological processes that involve the building process of the mountains lying on the earth. The formation of the mountain ranges occurs by means of the movements as opposed to the vertical ones. The plate tectonics, folding, faulting, volcanic activity, igneous intrusion and the metamorphism are all related to the orogenic process of the mountain building.
The thermal energy derived by decay and disintegration of the radioactive elements and a gravitational difference in the mantle is the cause of the endogenous process. The energy from sun, wind, weathering, hydrological cycle, force of gravity, mass wasting and the activity of the organism is the exogenous process of the earth. The rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
The accumulation and the compaction of the sediments from the pre-existing rocks that has been disintegrated due to weathering and erosion, organic debris like the shell of the mollusks or dead organism which gets precipitated in the condition of the oversaturation. The sedimentary can be classified on the basis of its mode of formation and the texture.
Minerals are the naturally occurring inorganic substances having ordered atomic structure and characteristic chemical composition, physical properties and crystal form. The branch of geology studying about the minerals is known as mineralogy. The mineral resources are formed by different external and internal geological processes like weathering, sedimentation, magmatism, plate tectonics and hydrothermal metasomatism.
According to the geological studies, from the South to North, Nepal is divided into the Terai, the Siwalik, the lower Himalaya, and the higher Himalaya and the Tibetan-Tethys zone. The studies have shown that the Terai region is considered important for the oil, natural gas and the ground water resources. The Siwalik zone is studied important for coal and the radioactive materials.